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Sparattosperma vernicosum I Cham.) Bur. et K. Sen.
A Bignonia Tree growing on School Street, Honolulu
After a painting by D. Howard Hitchcock
JOSEPH F. ROCK
BOTANIST OF THE COLLEGE OF HAWAII
CONSULTING BOTANIST OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF
AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, TERRITORY OF HAWAII
AUTHOR OF THE
"THE INDIGENOUS TREES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS"
ISSUED. FEBRUARY, 1917
WITH SEVENTY-NINE PHOTO-ENGRAVINGS AND
TWO COLOR PLATES
PUBLISHED UNDER PATRONAGE
HONOLULU. HAWAII, 1917
JOSEPH F. ROCK
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During a residence of more than nine years in these lovely
Islands, the writer has had opportunity in his connection with the
Board of Agriculture and Forestry and the College of Hawaii, as
Botanist, to devote all his time and lately part of his time to the
study of the Hawaiian Flora. It is true he was not interested until
lately in the introduced ornamental plants of Hawaii, but made the
native Flora his specialty. The result of part of the writer's re-
search was published under the title "The Indigenous Trees of the
Many have been the requests, however, for a non-technical vol-
ume treating the ornamental shrubs and trees of Hawaii and Hono-
lulu especially, the need of which has long been felt. The writer
took it upon himself to prepare such a book, which at first seemed
an easy task. He was, however, sadly mistaken. While some of
the trees did not give much difficulty as far as their identity was con-
cerned, others again proved more elusive, especially such as belong
to genera with numerous species. It took many journeys to all the
by-ways of Honolulu in search of plants, and often the writer was
told that in such and such a yard there was a tree which seemed to be
the only one in Honolulu. Often the tale proved to be true, and
occasionally it was a false alarm.
It may be stated that the plants treated or mentioned in this
volume are represented by specimens in the College of Hawaii Herb-
arium, and that they have been critically worked up. They have
not been cited from mere hear-say, but specimens were examined in
The nomenclature has been kept strictly in accordance with the
laws laid down by the last Botanical Congress held at Vienna in
1905 and not according to horticultural dealers or gardeners, who
simply apply a familiar name to a plant for the sole purpose of selling
it more easily. This accounts for the many species of Kcntia, while
in reality none of the palms on the market as such have anything
whatsoever in common with species of that rare genus. Nomenclature
of such type belongs to commercial botany.
While the title of this book is a modest one it gives more infor-
mation than is announced on the cover. The writer has treated not
only the ornamental trees, but also shrubs and in addition has men-
tioned the fruit trees and ornamental vines. It is not claimed that
this book includes all of the introduced trees, and, while it is a fairly
complete presentation of the trees found in Honolulu and elsewhere
in the Islands, there still remain a few as yet unidentified ; among
them are a few species of the genus Ficus, which possesses six hun-
dred species in all. Undoubtedly there are still a few odd trees in
some out of the way locality to be heard from, and the writer hopes
that this volume will stimulate the interest in the search for such.
He would welcome a correspondence with anyone residing in this
Territory who has a tree or trees not treated in this book, and would
welcome the receipt of flowering and fruiting specimens for identi-
fication, with any facts known regarding the history of introduction.
The information given under each tree or shrub has been obtained
from reliable works, the most noteworthy being "Watt's Dictionary
of the Economic Products of India."
During his travels through India and Ceylon and other parts of
the world, the writer himself has gathered facts regarding the useful
qualities of some of the trees cultivated in Hawaii. In only a few
instances was it possible to give historic data, as time of introduction
and name of introducer. Such knowledge is scarce, and often not
The photographs illustrating this volume are original, and have
been taken by the author save in one instance, plate XXVIII, which
was taken by Mr. W. M. Giffard. It has now become the writer's
property through gift.
The writer's sincere thanks are due to the patrons whose gener-
ous support made this publication possible. He is especially grateful
to Doctors A. Romberg and A. L. Andrews of the College of Hawaii
for the reading of manuscript and proof sheets.
The volume is herewith presented to the public with the hope
that it will fulfill the purpose for which it was intended and arouse
enthusiasm among the kamaainas for the protection of these trees
entrusted into their care. Let them plant new generations of some
of the single and odd specimens introduced by their forefathers, that
they may not share the fate of some of our native trees.
Honolulu, October 13, 1916.
It is really astonishing how many species of plants one observes
when taking a walk through the older residential section of Hono-
lulu. If even only slightly acquainted with tropical plants one soon
learns to distinguish the species of plants (or trees) which adorn
this beautiful city; indeed an arboretum in itself. The question
arises, who is responsible for the introduction of the many wonderful
plants. The writer is sorry to state that it was not always pos-
sible to ascertain the historical facts regarding each. Many of
the older residents who knew or remembered the approximate date
of introduction of some of the more striking plants, have passed
away without leaving records regarding the origin of many of the
plants now under cultivation in Honolulu. The Honolulu people
have always been great travelers, and in the early days when voyages
had to be made around the "Horn" sailing vessels usually stopped
en route at South American ports and many seeds were thus gathered
and brought to Honolulu, but the names of the plants, and where
they came from were forgotten, and often even the place where they
were planted. Save for a few old residents, actually and system-
atically interested in plant introduction, the majority of them
brought things home in the above described manner.
The writer found some valuable information in the Proceedings
of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society of 1855 regarding the
introduction of certain plants, and as the volume is not available, or
known in general, he gives such facts as have bearing on the present
It may be stated that the presence of many of the rarer plants
in Honolulu is due to the indefatigable efforts of Dr. William
Hillebrand, an ardent student of the Hawaiian Flora, and a long-
time resident of these Islands where he held many prominent public
offices. Honolulu owes him the profoundest gratitude.
The first white settler and agriculturist on the Island of Oahu
was Don Francisco de Paula Marin. He came to the Islands in the
vessel Princesa Real in 1791. From his arrival to the time of his
death, which occurred in Honolulu on October, 1837 (63 years old),
he devoted all his spare time to the cultivation of his garden. He
kept a journal, which, at the time of his death, consisted of several
volumes; his first entry was on Nov. 14, 1809. He relates on
January 11, 1813, that he planted pineapples, an orange tree, beans,
cabbage, potatoes, peaches, chirimoyas, horse radish, melons, tobacco,
carrots, asparagus, maize, fig trees, lemons, and lettuce. It is not
at all surprising not to find a few ornamental plants among the
list, for in those days Honolulu had little to offer in the vegetable
line save taro and bananas, and for a European used to vegetables,
living was indeed a difficult problem. He tells us that in 1815 he
planted vines (grapes) for the king, and that on December 30,
1817, he set out coffee, cotton, cloves, tomatoes, turnips, pepper
(capsicum), wheat, barley, castor oil, saffron and cherries.
Again it was Don Marin who made the first sugar in the Islands
on the 25th of February, 1819. On the 22nd of September of the
same year he tells us that he obtained his first orange from the tree
planted eight years ago.
While these introductions have no particular connection with the
plants concerning us in this book, it is, however, of interest to record
them. The first introductions of seeds were those of melons,
pumpkins and onions ; they were landed on the Island of Niihau on
Sunday, the first of February, 1778. Vancouver, on the fourth of
March, 1792, presented to Kahaumoku, a chief on Hawaii (father
of Kaahumanu), the first grape, orange, and almond seeds as well
as other garden seeds.
To Don Marin or Manini, as he was called by the natives, who
also named the Bermuda grass after him, which to this day is known
as Manienie, is due first credit. It is only to be regretted that the
whereabouts of his journal are at present not known. Other men
actively interested in the introduction of plants were G. Wunden-
berg, W. L. Lee, E. Bailey, A. Jaeger and others, to mention only
the earlier ones.
G. Wundenburg reports having successfully planted at Hanalei,
Kauai, in 1849, the first Inocarpus edulis, Tahitian Chestnut, while
Papaias, Chirimoya and Vi apples he planted in 1848, the seed
having been brought from Tahiti. He also records the planting of a
Tamarind in 1847, which flowered for the first time in May, 1852.
In the same year (1847) he set out two date palms.
Numerous must have been the introductions of both ornamental
and useful plants as early even as 1840, for W. L. Lee, president
of the R. H. Agricult. Soc, writes on June 7, 1853: "Let those
who wish to be convinced of the value of trees look back a few-
years upon the burned and barren yards of Honolulu and compare
them with the cool and beautiful groves of our forest city."
Numerous other references could be cited would space permit ; suf-
fice it to say, however, while general introductions were made no
real efforts, at least no successful ones were inaugurated, for the
setting aside of a tract of land for a botanic garden and the system-
atic planting of such.
Dr. W. Hillebrand was one of the most ardent advocates of the
establishment of such an institution, as can be observed from his
addresses delivered before the R. H. Agricultural Society. He states
that he had been in active communication with the botanic gardens
of Rio de Janeiro and other like institutions and that he had
planted 160 species in his grounds. Unfortunately the list giving
the names which was to be appended was mislaid and could not be
secured in time for the printing of the proceedings of the above
The reader will find the name of Airs. Alary E. Foster on
nearly every page in this book in connection with trees occurring on
her premises, once the old home of Dr. W. Hillebrand, who was
responsible for the introduction of all these plants.
Many plants were introduced by later generations, but the
quoting of such instances would lead us too far.
More interest, however, should be taken in growing certain of
these plants which are often represented by single specimens only.
As they are now very old they are likely to succumb and could not
well be replaced. Much could be said in regard to the taking care
of and the planting of the various public gardens existing in Hono-
lulu, and were their supervision in competent hands a good deal more
could be accomplished, even with the limited funds on hand. For
a matter of record the writer wishes to state that he introduced
many ornamental plants new to Hawaii, from various parts of
the world. He traveled through tropical Asia, the Dutch East
Indies and other tropical islands for the sole purpose of introducing
valuable ornamental plants. Amherstia nobilis, and species of
Broivnea, are among the latest introductions ; they are considered
the finest of all flowering plants known, but all previous efforts
to introduce these plants had failed.
Great credit is due to Mr. G. P. Wilder for the introduction of
many plants and likewise to the efforts of Mrs. F. J. Lowrey,
President of the Outdoor Circle, and to that body in general for
the great unselfish interest shown in the beautification of Honolulu.
May the spirit that inspired the past generations to make Hono-
lulu a forest city, be the inheritance of the younger generation into
whose care this city is entrusted.
May it always be ''Honolulu the Beautiful."
The seeds of these plants are not enclosed in a pericarp but are
usually contained in a cone of some sort. As examples serve the
cones of pine- or fir-trees. The plants belonging to this group are
all woody, the majority of them are trees, only few are shrubs.
To the family Cycadaceae belong our cultivated species of Cycas,
one of which, Cycas revoluta, has often been erroneously termed Sago
palm. This family comprises woody plants which are restricted to
tropical and subtropical regions.
It is an extremely interesting group of plants on account of the
position it occupies in the plant kingdom, intermediate between the
ferns and the flowering plants. A few words in regard to the re-
lationship of the cycads to other plants may not be out of place here.
The Cycads are dioecious — that is, the male and female flowers are
borne on different trees. The young foliage is rolled up exactly as in
ferns. The male inflorescence grows in the form of erect cones, con-
sisting of scales which bear globose pollen sacs underneath ; the fe-
male inflorescence is in the center of the crowns of the leaves ; and con-
sists of pinnately notched leaves called carpophylls in whose notches
the naked ovules are situated ; pollination is effected by the wind. It
has fruits like those of flowering plants, with starchy endocarp, but
fertilization is accomplished by means of spermatozoids and arche-
gonia, corresponding to the male and female elements in animals ; this
brings them closer to the Cryptogams, which are plants destitute of
stamens, pistils, and true seeds.
Cycas revoluta Thunb.
So-called Sago Palm.
Cycas revoluta has a stout cylindrical trunk which does not
branch and does not exceed three feet in height; the leaves are numer-
ous, forming a crown horizontally around the apex of the stem. The
leaflets are strongly revolute — that is, their margins are rolled back,
hence the name "revoluta." As already remarked in the introduction
under Cycadaceae, the plant is not related to the palms and is erron-
eously called Sago palm. It is a native of China and is now culti-
vated in many other countries besides Hawaii, and can often be found
Cycas circinalis L.
Growing in the grounds of Mrs. M. E. Foster on Nuuanu Avenue.
as a pot plant. There are possibly two more species cultivated in
Honolulu : Cycas circinalis and Cycas media; these two seem to dif-
fer from each other only in that the latter branches, sometimes from
the base, while the former has a simple stem with open loose whorls
of leaves; both attain a height of fifteen or more feet in this Terri-
tory, while in some regions they reach a height of thirty-five feet,
with trunks a foot and a half in diameter. A form of >tarch called
Sago is obtained from the trunk of this plant, though the true Sago
is derived from the Sago palm (Metroxylon Sagus) a palm indigen-
ous in the East Indian Archipelago where it flourishes in low marshy
situations. Sago is used principally as an article of diet, it is very
nutritious and easily digested, and does not contain irritative prop-
erties. Sago is derived not only from the true Sago palm and from
the so-called Sago palm, which is our Cycas revoluta, but also from
a number of other plants belonging to different families.
Cycas circinalis L.
Cycas circinalis L. is a palm-like tree of small stature differing
from the so-called Sago palm Cycas revoluta in its taller stem and
large open crown of leaves which are much longer than those of Cycas
revoluta, often measuring six and a half feet. The trunk is usually
single but often branching when the top has been cut off. There seems
to be a doubt in regard to the systematic value of Cycas media, a
species supposedly cultivated in these Islands. The latter has been
described from Australia and is said to reach often a height of thirty
to sixty feet and is rarely branched. The male cones of the latter
are of various sizes but apparently smaller than in Cycas circinalis;
otherwise the two species resemble each other.
Cycas circinalis bears nuts which are poisonous in their crude
state, but are used for food by the natives of Guam after having
been macerated in water and cooked. It is a native of the Moluccas
but is found wild in Guam and in the mountains of the Alalabar
coast in India and also in Ceylon. The trunk also contains Sago.
The seeds are so poisonous that even the water in which the seeds
have been steeped is fatal to chickens. The seeds are usually ground
into flour, and cakes are made which are baked like tortillas on a
griddle. This is practiced in Guam as well as by the Cinghalese of
Ceylon but only in times of scarcity. Among the Cinghalese it is re-
puted a remedy for some disorders.
The beautiful growth of this Cycas makes it a very desirable
ornamental plant, much more so than the rather stunted looking CycOs
revoluta. The writer has observed Cycas circinalis growing wild in
Guam, where they reach the water's edge, growing in calcareous
sandy soil. The luxuriant growth and beautiful fronds recall pic-
tures of the flora of the carboniferous age, in which this family played
such an important part. The Cycadaceae form one of the oldest
groups of plants, antedating the conifers.
The Pixe Family.
The family Pinaceae is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by a
number of introduced species belonging mainly to Cupressus (Cy-
presses), Cryptomeria, Araucaria and Agathis; of the first named
genus several species have been planted here, but mainly at the higher
levels, as for instance, at Ulupalakua, and Olinda, Maui. The same
may be said of Cryptomeria, of which genus the species japonica from
Japan has been extensively planted on the uplands of Haleakala and
in other similar places in the Territory.
Of Cupressus there are in cultivation : C. sempervirens, originally
a native of Persia but now cultivated in many countries and easily
recognized by its tall sharply cone-shaped growth ; it is said to reach
an age of more than two thousand years.
C. funebriSj the mourning Cypress, can also be found; it differs
from the former in its spreading crown and drooping branches. It
is a native of China and North East India, but has been in cultivation
in Europe since 1848. Mention must also be made of other culti-
vated species belonging to the Pint Family, as for example, Podocar-
pus neriifolia D. Don. and several species of Dacrydium which may
be found on private premises about Honolulu. The two genera
which, however, concern us most are Agathis and Araucaria, which
are treated separately.
Agathis australis Salisb.
Kauri Pixe (Syn. Dammara australis).
The Kauri is called the monarch of the forests of New Zealand,
and while it does not reach such dimensions as its rival the giant
Sequoia of California, it excels the Sequoia in its timber value, pos-
sessing many more good qualities than any other known pine. In
its native home it reaches a height of one hundred to one hundred
twentv feet, with a diameter of four to twelve feet and over, the
main arms are spreading, and themselves often two feet thick. The
green leaves are thick, broad, and leathery, and have no resemblance
to the needles of pines of the northern hemisphere. The bark of the
Kauri abounds in resin, which exudes from the slightest wound. The
young leaves are flat and narrow, while the mature ones are much
shorter and more closely set. The male and female flowers are
borne on the same tree, but in separate cones ; the male catkins are
cylindrical and appear in the axils of the leaves, the scales are really
anthers or pollen sacs. The female cone is at the end of the branch,
and carries on the upper surface of each scale a single ovule. In fruit
the cone is almost spherical in outline and about three inches in
diameter. Gigantic specimens can be found in New Zealand with
trunks of twenty-four feet in diameter with an estimated age of
four thousand years.
The Kauri, which wasl also termed Coivrie Spruce when first in-
troduced into England, is remarkable for its soundness of timber,
and no tree is known to retain its timber in a good condition so
long after the greatest rate of growth has been passed.
In New Zealand several varieties are distinguished, such as
Red Kauri, White Kauri, Black Kauri and Soft Kauri.
Red and White Kauri can be taken from the same tree ; the for-
mer from the heartwood, which is much denser, the white from next
The timber is yellowish white, straight in grain, clean and of a
silky aspect, of great strength and elasticity. Kauri logs which had
been lying in the forest for over forty years were found to be per-
fectly sound after the vegetation with which they were completely
overgrown was removed.
It is a lowland tree and becomes scarce at elevations over one
thousand feet in New Zealand. In Honolulu the Kauri pine may
be found in various residential grounds, the largest one in Mrs.
Foster's premises on Nuuanu Avenue. Specimens may be found in
the grounds of the Board of Agriculture on King Street and in the
premises of the Spreckels home on Punahou Street. It was prob-
ably first introduced by Dr. Hillebrand.
All parts of the tree are charged with resin, which is at first
colorless turpentine but solidifies when coming in contact with the
atmosphere. This resin is known as Kauri gum. However, the
resin which reaches the market is not derived from fresh resin se-
cured by wounding the trees, but from fossil resin dug up from
territories which were once covered by Kauri forests, this fossil resin
is of a rich brown color, while fresh resin is dull white. It is found
in lumps varying from a few ounces to several pounds. The more
transparent resin is used as a substitute for amber, while the ordi-
nary gum is used in the manufacture of varnishes.
Araucaria excelsa R. Br.
Norfolk Island Pine.
The genus Araucaria was established in the year 1789 by the
Botanist Jussieu, who used the vernacular name Auracanos which
had been applied to one of these trees by the inhabitants of Chile
in South America. There are quite a number of species, A. Cun-
ninghamiij A. Bidwillii, both of which are peculiar to Australia,
while A. excelsa is peculiar to Norfolk Island, and A. Cookii is
only known from the Isle of Pines off New Caledonia and from
New Caledonia proper. The name Norfolk Island Pine is applied
in Honolulu promiscuously to the four species cultivated here, but
should be applied only to A. excelsa, as the other species have ver-
nacular names of their own. The Norfolk Island Pine 1 is one of the
handsomest of the genus and exceeds often two hundred feet in
height in its native country. It is closely allied to A. Cunninghamii
and A. Cookii, though the latter have smaller cones; it is one of the
most symmetrically growing Araucarias, and tall specimens may be
found in various places about Honolulu. The Araucarias have sterile
branches, the leaves of which are of two forms on a few species, as
A. Cunninghamii, while they are uniform on A. Bidwillii.
On sterile branches the leaves are laterally compressed, sickle- to
awl-shaped, while those of the fertile branches are triangular-lance-
olate and shorter than those of the sterile branches.
In the United States there are about fifteen species of Araucar-
ias in cultivation; the most popular is A. exceisa and its varieties,
mostly horticultural varieties. According to Bailey about two hun-
dred and fifty thousand potted plants of the species are sold in the
States, nearly all being imported in a young state from Belgium, es-
pecially from Ghent, where the propagation of this species is made a
specialty. Not only are they exported to the United States, but the
world supply of this species for many years came exclusively from
The Araucarias can be propagated from seeds as well as cut-
tings, and fine specimens can be grown from the latter when they
are taken from the leading shoots instead of side shoots, and planted
Araucaria Cunninghamii Ait.
Richmond River or Hoop Pine.
Araucaria Cunninghamii is a pyramidal tree with a somewhat
flattened crown and attains a height of one hundred fifty to two
hundred feet in its native land, the north coast district of New South
Wales and the southern coast of Queensland ; it is one of the tallest
Australian pines. The bark of this tree is quite characteristic, hav-
ing the appearance of horizontal bands, whence it derived its name
Hoop Pine. The leaves are of two different kinds; they are crowded
and spirally arranged, prickly, and only about one-third of an inch
long, while on the lower branches they are spreading, vertical, and
often more than an inch in length.
The male amenta or catkins are cylindrical and two to three
inches long. The cones are egg-shaped and about four inches long
and three inches wide. The wood of this pine is very valuable and
is largely used for furniture; it is whitish in color and has often
beautifully grained markings. Owing to its inability to stand ex-
posure it is valued mainly for indoor work, and is extensively used
for flooring and lining boards. The bark contains an oleo-resin and
gum which have not yet been used commercially. The aboriginal
name of this pine is Coarong, while besides the above mentioned
vernacular names it is known in Australia also as Moreton Bay
Pine, and Colonial Pine.
Araucaria Cookii R. Br.
This species, which was named for Captain Cook, the great cir-
cumnavigator, is a native of New Caledonia and Isle of Pines off the
coast of New Caledonia.
It is similar in habit to Araucaria excelsa, but the lower branches
tend to fall off. The leaves are alternate and rather distant, broad
and slightly decurrent — that is, they have a tendency to run down
the stem ; the old leaves are densely imbricated or overlap as the
tiles of a roof, they are short, egg-shaped and not pointed.
In its native habitat the tree reaches a height of often two hun-
dred feet with a perfectly straight shaft.
Araucaria Bidwillii Hook.
This valuable forest tree of the coast district of Queensland can
be found cultivated in Honolulu though the specimens are not so
Araucaria Bidwillii Hook.
Growing on Nuuanu Avenue.
large as those of the other species. It appears to have first been
made known to white men in 1838. A Mr. J. L. Bidwill took
material of this tree with him to England and there the tree was
described by Sir William Hooker.
In its native habitat the tree reaches a height of one hundred feet
and is now much cultivated on account of its symmetrical shape and
its whorled branches with spirally arranged leaves ; the latter are
of one kind, have no leaf stalk and are ovate-lanceolate in outline,
not quite two inches long, and end in a very sharp point. The male
catkins are arranged at the ends of the branches, are over six inches
long and half an inch wide. The fruit cones are exceedingly large,
twelve inches long and nine inches wide, and cones ten pounds in
weight occur occasionally on trees in their native land. While they
have as yet not flowered in Honolulu, they have borne fruit at
Ulupalakua, Maui, and seeds have been secured there for plantings.
The aborigines of Queensland call the tree Bunya or Bon-Yi,
and eat the nuts, of which they are very fond. The wood is of a
pale color and is used for similar purposes as that of the Hoop Pine.
This class includes all plants whose seeds are contained in a
closed fruit, which is very various in structure and form. The
largest number of trees belong to this class. They are again made
up of two subclasses: 1. Monocotyledones, in which the embrionic
plant within the seed possesses but a single leaf; the leaves are parallel-
veined as in the banana, and gingers. II. Dicotyledones, in which
the embryo has two seed-leaves ; the leaves are pinnately or palmately
Subclass Monocotyledon es.
This subclass is distinguished by the simplicity of the stem-
structure, the fibro-vascular bundles are arranged in a single column
without a pith or medullary rays. There are no rings or radiating
markings in the wood. A bark is absent, the outer portion being of
the same structure as the inner, with the exception that the bundles
are closer and more compact. Most of the plants belonging to this
class are herbaceous, as for example, the grasses, bananas, lilies, etc.,
The Pandani and Palms are the arborescent species represented in
our introduced flora.
The family Pandanaceae is represented in Honolulu by the horti-
cultural species Pandanus I eitchii Hort. a native of Polynesia, and
the Hawaiian as well as cosmopolitan species Pandanus tectorius Sol.
and a few of its varieties. Pandanus Rockii Alartelli from the Isl-
and of Palmyra has been more or less extensively planted both on
Oahu and Molokai. The first mentioned species has variegated
leaves and forms large round clumps when left unmolested, the two
others have bright green leaves and are more erect; the latter is
slender in habit.
Pandanus sylvestris Bory.
Pandanus sylvestris, an elegant species, is also cultivated in Hono-
lulu. It is easily distinguished by the long pedunculate (stalked)
syncarpium, which is depressed-globose, and composed of about thirty
drupes, somewhat compressed and pyramidal in outline, the apex is
slightly concave. A reddish or rose-colored ring surrounds the drupe
at about the middle or part of adherence with the other drupes.
The branching habit of this species is rather peculiar, the branches
are horizontal and decrease in length upwards, the whole tree having
the appearance of a pyramid.
It is a native of the Island of Reunion, but is cultivated in many
botanic gardens. In Honolulu a mature specimen grows in the
grounds of Lunalilo Home, near the entrance.
The most conspicuous and stately members of the vegetable
kingdom are unquestionably the palms, one of the largest and most
beautiful of all natural orders. The palms indeed supply many of
our wants and minister largely to our comforts. The palms have
been termed "The princes of the vegetable kingdom;" this title is,
however, only a poetical one and is for several reasons objectionable.
They are not placed pre-eminently at the head of the vegetable king-
dom but occupy a more or less inferior position in that classified
organization known as the Natural System of Plant Families. They
belong to the same great division as the grasses, rushes, and lilies,
etc., standing intermediate between the highest and lowest forms of
plants. In their outward structure as well as in their internal ar-
rangement they come nearest to the grasses, which, in contradistinc-
t'on to the palms, have been termed by Linnaeus the Plebeians.
Palmae. 1 1
The stranger's attention is of course first of all drawn to the
magnificent palms found throughout Honolulu, where as many as
sixty to eighty species of these so-called princes hold forth.
The nature of this work forhids going into detail concerning
every species of palm found cultivated in this Territory, as it would
make a book in itself. Many have been introduced in recent years
by enthusiastic horticulturists and the number of species found in
the Territory now will probably amount to well over a hundred.
Many of them, however, are as yet small plants and will be passed
over without comment.
The writer wishes to call attention to the fact that in Hawaii
there is a single indigenous genus (Pritchardia) , represented by about
eleven or twelve species growing wild in isolated regions in the moun-
tains of these Islands. The genus Pritchardia is strictly speaking an
oceanic genus with most of its species occurring wild in this Terri-
tory. Only one foreign species, Pritchardia pacifica Seem, et Wendl.,
a native of Fiji, is here in cultivation.
Mention must be made of various palms which are under cultiva-
tion in Honolulu but of which only very few, or sometimes only a
singly specimen may be found. The most noteworthy and handsome
of these are described below. Actinophloeus Macarthuri Becc, com-
monly known as Kentia; it is a soboliferous palm of great beauty but
cannot endure strong wind on account of its fragile narrow stems.
Two specimens may be seen at the entrance to Mrs. F. J. Lowrey's
grounds corner of Victoria Street on the Punahou car line ; another
much stronger and fruiting specimen on King Street near the en-
trance to Kalakaua Avenue.
Hoivea Belmoreana Becc, and Howea Forsteriana Becc, are both
commonly known as Kentias. Of the former a fine specimen is in
Mrs. Foster's grounds on Nuuanu Street, and of the latter only a
single mature one, in Mrs. Jaeger's place on King street. Hoicea
Belmoreana differs from H. Forsteriana in the leaves, the segments
of which are turned upward, and in the long flowering spike, wmich
is produced singly in the axil of the leaf; while in H. Forsteriana
the leaf segments are turned downward and the much shorter flower-
ing spikes are produced in pairs or even groups of three from one
leaf axil. Both are natives of Lord Howe Islands, from w T hich name
the generic name is derived.
Pinanga Kuhlii Bl., a very handsome, broad leafed, soboliferous
palm, a native of the East Indian Archipelago, is found planted out
in Mrs. Jaeger's premises. Didymosper/na (Ifallichia) distichurn,
the Sikkim Palm is exceedingly curious on account of its distichous
Phoenix dactylifera L.
Date Palms in Moanalua Gardens.
leaves, being arranged on two sides of the trunk, only, as in the
Traveler's Tree. A specimen, now fairly well grown has been
planted by Mr. Jordan on Wyllie street; it is the only one in the
Territory. Copernicia cerifera Mart., the W ax Palm, is a native of
northern Brazil, where it grows either isolated or aggregated in
immense forests. It attains a height of twenty to forty feet. The
leaves are covered by a glaucous bloom, and are arranged so as to
form an almlost perfect ball. A single specimen which flowers and
fruits profusely, is in cultivation ; it grows in the grounds of Mr.
W. Macfarlane on Pensacola Street. Archontophoenix alexandrae
W. et D., the Alexandra Palm of Australia, is quite plentiful in Hono-
lulu. It is a tall pinnately leafed palm with short inflorescence and red
subglobose fruits. Specimens occur in private grounds ; two rather
tall ones may be seen on King Street near the Board of Agriculture
and Forestry building, and others on the premises of Lunalilo Home.
A few specimens of Trachycarpus excelsa, a small Chinese fan
palm with blackish fibre around the base of the leaf stalks are also
present in Honolulu but seem not to thrive well in this climate as
they require a cold winter season. Specimens are located at the
Queen's Hospital grounds, on Mrs. Jaeger's premises, and one or
two on Wyllie Street in Nuuanu Valley. Closely related to it is
Chamaerops humilis Linn, of which there are one or two specimens
in cultivation in Honolulu. It is the Dwarf Fan Palm of southern
Europe where it grows in abundance ; it was known to the Romans
under the name P.alma probably on account of a certain resemblance
of its leaves to the hand (palma). Later on the name was adopted for
other members of the order until it was employed as the Family
name of this wonderful group of plants.
Chamaerops mncrocarpa Juss. is also under cultivation in Hono-
lulu ; fine specimens may be seen in Mr. Jordan's grounds on Wyllie
Phoenix dactylifera L.
The Date Palm.
The Date Palm is usually a stately tree with a tall trunk marked
with the scars of fallen leaves. The leaves are pinnatisect, bearing
linear segments, the lower segments often assuming the appearance
of spines ; they are moreover conduplicate at the base, a peculiarity
distinguishing Phoenix from all other genera of palms. The flowers
groW on branched spadices, which appear in the axils of the leaves
and are dark vellow and dioecious. In order to make the tree bear
Coccothrinax argentea (Lodd.) Sargent
Growing in St. Louis College grounds.
plentifully it is necessary to have recourse to artificial fertilization.
The dates van considerably in shape and size from round to oblong,
they are a yellowish-brown drupe with generally only one seed.
Phot nix dactylifera L. has been cultivated in Asia, Africa, and
Europe from time immemorial and it is as yet not known whetner
the East Indian species Phot nix sylvestris Roxb. is a wild state of
Phot nix dactylifera L. Both of these species occur in Honolulu, but
as they are hybridised by insects such a variety of hybrids exist that
it is absolutely impossible to distinguish one from the other. The
other species are in a similar chaos with the exception of Phot nix
spinosa Thon. and Phoenix reclinata Jacq. and some botanists do
not make any distinction even between these two. The two latter
species occur in Honolulu and the difference between them seems
quite evident. Phoenix spinosa is apparently soboliferous, that is it
sends out shoots from the old root-stock, the trunk is slender and
taller than in Phoenix reclinata, which has a rather short trunk and a
different crown of leaves. Both are natives of the Cape of Good
Phoenix pusilla Gaertn., a rather handsome species, a native of
Ceylon, has been planted in Kapiolani Park, in a group near the race
track on the ocean side. It has a short gray trunk and stiff blue green
leaves; the drupes are short and thick. In Honolulu there is a male
specimen of Date Palm of low stature which the writer refers to
Phot nix humilis. It occurs in Mrs. Jaeger's grounds on Beretania and
Punahou streets. It is exceedingly handsome and deserves to be cul-
tivated. There seems to be little difference between Phoenix
farinifera Willd. and Ph. humilis Royle, both of which have short
trunks and are soboliferous.
Of Phoenix spinosa there are only two specimens in Honolulu
so far as the writer is aware, and both occur on the grounds of
a private residence on Wilder Avenue near Pensacola Street. The
fruit is borne profusely and is smaller, perhaps, than any other
date. Phoenix reclinata Jacq. is represented by quite a number of
specimens, the largest of which can be found in the Queen's Hos-
pital grounds to the left of the main entrance under old date trees.
Others are scattered over town in public gardens and private
Phoenix canariensis Hort., the most commonly planted date tree in
California is of ornamental value only ; strange to say there are only
about three or four specimens in Honolulu. Two, the oldest speci-
mens, can be found in Mrs. Jaeger's grounds and others in the
premises of the late Governor Cleghorn at Waikiki. It is easily
Corypha umbraculifera L.
A fine specimen of the Talipot Palm in Mrs. Jaeger's premises on
distinguished from the other dates by its very stout trunk which
reaches several feet in diameter. The leaves are dark green and
narrower than those of the ordinary date palm. It is a native of
the Canary Islands, as the specific name implies.
Rhapis flabelliformis Ait.
Ground Rattan Palm, or Bamboo Palm.
Rhapis flabelliformis is a low palm with caespitose roots and
reed-like trunks, the leaves are palmate and terminal, and their peti-
oles, especially at the base, are surrounded by a fibrous matting. The
yellowish flowers are polygamo-dioecious. The Bamboo Palm is a
native of the Island of Liu Kiu and Southern China, and is culti-
vated in oriental, especially Japanese, gardens for ornamental pur-
poses. In Honolulu quite a number of specimens have been planted
out in private premises, as well as in public parks. The oldest and
tallest are in the late Governor Cleghorn's private garden at Waikiki.
Its slender trunks are used to manufacture walking-sticks.
Rhapis Cochinchinensis Mart, is probably also under cultivation
Coccothrinax argentea (Lodd.) Sarg.
The genus Coccothrinax consists of about sixteen species all of
which occur in the floral regions of the Antilles or West Indies.
The silvery Coccothrinax is one of the handsomest species, but
must be protected from wind, otherwise it will have a torn and
It can be easily recognized by its slender, graceful stem and
terminal fan leaves which are silvery-gray underneath. The green
or greenish-yellow flowers are borne in axillary, branched spadices;
the fruit is blackish-blue, round and one-seeded.
The leaves of the Coccothrinax argentea are manufactured into
baskets and all kinds of. wicker-work besides being employed for the
famous chip hats in the West Indies, and are made into brooms in
the Isthmus of Panama whence the tree has received the name of
"Palma de escoba" or Broom Palm.
In Honolulu it is planted for ornamental purposes only and
can be found in a great many residential grounds about the city.
It is especially suited for planting in groves in well protected places.
Livistona chinensis Mart.
Chinese Fan Palm in the Pleasanton Hotel grounds.
Of late a number of species of Thrinax have been introduced,
as for example Thrinax parviflora Swartz and Thrinax radiata Lodd.,
but as the specimens are quite small as yet they will not be com-
mented upon. Coccothrinax barbadensis (Lodd.) Becc. may also
Corypha umbraculifera L.
The Talipot Palm.
The Talipot Palm is one of about five species belonging to the
genus Corypha. It has a ringed trunk, generally remarkably
straight and reaching a height of over eighty feet. Its leaves are of
gigantic size if not the largest fan leaves of all palms. The petiole
is seven feet long and armed with spines on the margins. The blade
is about six feet long and sixteen feet broad with segments num-
bering from ninety-five to a hundred, which are again bilobed. The
flowers are white to cream colored and are borne in huge terminal
panicles often twenty feet long; hence the palm can flower but once,
after which it must die. The fruit is a roundish one-seeded drupe.
This enormous palm is a native of Ceylon and the Malabar
coast but is now cultivated in most tropical countries. The flower-
ing time begins usually in the hot season, while the seeds ripen about
nine or ten months afterwards. Each tree covers about two hun-
dred superficial feet.
The leaves of this palm are made into fans, mats and um-
brellas; the segments were used by the Cinghalese to write on, and
the sacred Pali texts of the Buddhist literature of Ceylon are all
written on the leaf segments of this palm which are supposed to
have withstood the ravages of ages.
The seeds, which are hard like ivory, are employed in India in
the manufacture of beads ; they are sometimes colored red and sold
as coral. The pith of the trunk of this palm yields a kind of Sago,
it is beaten to flour and baked into cakes.
There are two specimens in Honolulu; the finest, here illus-
trated, grows in front of Airs. Jaeger's residence on King Street;
a small specimen which was kept in a pot but has now been planted
out in the same grounds, is of the same age as the large specimen.
Another, and probably older one, with a trunk of about ten feet
was perhaps the first one introduced into Hawaii. It grows in
Airs. AI. E. Foster's premises on Nuuanu Street.
Livistona australis Mart.
Growing on the Government Nursery grounds on Keeaumoku and
Livistona rotundifolia Mart.
The Livistonas are remarkable for their elegant appearance
and beautiful foliage, but they do not possess many useful qualities
found in species of other genera. The genus consists of twelve or
perhaps fourteen species, which are natives of India and Australia
ranging from Assam and South China to the tropical North and
sub-tropical East coast of Australia in New South Wales and even
Livistona rotundifolia is a tall palm reaching a height of forty-
five to sixty feet with a straight smooth trunk, marked with close
annular scars, the leaves are crowded at the apex, their long stalks
are armed on the sides with hard sharp teeth ; the leaf-blade is
orbicular, cleft into numerous segments, one to two inches wide,
which are again cleft at the apex into two lanceolate pointed lobes,
two inches long; the base is heart-shaped and about three feet in dia-
meter. The inflorescence is axillary, drooping, and over three feet
long. The flowers are small, sessile and numerous ; the fruit is glo-
bose, somewhat fleshy, yellowish-red, and about half an inch or more
This palm is a native of Celebes in the Sunda Straits, but is
cultivated in many tropical countries. The wood and leaves are
employed for various economic purposes by the natives of Celebes.
In Honolulu this palm is sometimes met with, but is not so com-
monly cultivated as Livistona chinensis Mart. The finest specimens
can be seen on Pensacola Street opposite the Makiki cemetery.
Scattered trees occur here and there, as on King Street, Keeaumoku
Street, and in the grounds of the Grammar School, the old residence
of Princess Ruth Kelikelani.
Livistona chinensis Mart.
Chinese Fax Palm.
The Chinese Fan Palm is the palm most commonly met with
in Honolulu. Its trunk is arboreous, gray, nearly a foot in diameter
and unarmed. The palmate leaves are of a bright green, the
petioles are furnished with spines at the edge, and copious fibres at
the base. The white flowers are arranged in axillary panicles. The
fruit is a drupe of the size of an olive with glaucous hue and
It is a native of Eastern Asia, but now most extensivelv cultivated
Erythea armata (L.) Watson.
Blue Palm, in fruit, on the grounds of Mr. Jordan's residence,
for ornamental purposes in all tropical and subtropical countries. In
Honolulu nearly every yard has one or more specimens. Livistona
austral is Mart., a much handsomer palm, is not at all common in
Honolulu. The best specimens occur in the Government Nursery
grounds, facing Keeaumoku Street. It differs from the former species
mainly in the blue, globose seeds, and, as the name implies, is a
native of Australia. There are a few other species of Livistona in
cultivation in Honolulu, single specimens occurring in private
grounds, but as yet not definitely determined. See Plate VII.
Erythea armata (L.) Watson.
The Blue Palm is indigenous in lower California and belongs
to a genus of five species. This extremely handsome and ornamental
palm has often a trunk of more than two feet in diameter in its
naked portion while the part covered with the old leaves measures
eight feet in circumference. The leaves, which are of the fan
type, are rigid and intensely glaucous, and suborbicular in outline ;
the leafstalk is nearly four feet long, and very closely armed with
compressed unequal spines, whence the specific name. The flower-
ing branches are very long, often six feet or more, and droop to the
ground when loaded with fruit, as can be seen in the accompanying
illustration. When in flower this palm is an object of great beauty,
which is enhanced by the handsome bluish symmetrical fronds.
It is a native of southern California, where it grows in canyons
along dry water-courses. In Honolulu there are only two specimens
in cultivation ; the one figured was introduced by Air. Jordan, in
whose grounds it grows, the other, a less handsome specimen, may
be seen in Kapiolani Park near the race track.
Pritchardia pacifica Seem, et Wendl.
Fiji Fax Palm.
The genus Pritchardia numbers about sixteen species, twelve of
which are natives of the Hawaiian Islands, where the writer has
discovered seven new species, five of which have been described by
Dr. Beccari of Florence, and one by the writer, the remaining one
will be described in the near future in a monograph on the Ha-
waiian species of that interesting genus.
Pritchardia pacifica Seem, et Wendl.
Fiji Fan Palms.
Pritcharia pacifica was first described in 1861 and the genus
named in honor of W. T. Pritchard, author of Polynesian Remin-
iscences, who was also British Consul in Fiji.
The Fiji Fan Palm seldom attains a height of thirty feet, its
trunk is straight, unarmed, and ten to twelve inches in diameter at
the base. The crown is globular, and composed of about twenty
leaves, the petioles of which are covered at the base with a mass
of brown fibre. The blade of the leaf is fan-shaped, usually
four and a half feet long, and three and a half feet wide. The
flowers issue from the axils of the leaves and are enveloped in several
very fibrous, flaccid spathes. The inflorescence never appears below
the crown, but always in the axils of the upper leaves. The fruit
is perfectly round, half an inch in diameter, and when mature is of
a blackish color.
The Fijians make the leaves into fans which are only used by
the chiefs, w T hile the common people have to content themselves with
fans made of a Screw pine or Pandanus.
The fans are from two to three feet across and have a border
of flexible wood. The Fijians never employ the leaves as a thatch,
but the trunk is used for ridge beams.
The Fiji Fan Palm was probably introduced into the Hawaiian
Islands in the early seventies, by Dr. Hillebrand. It grows exceed-
ingly well in Honolulu, and owing to its beautiful shape and leaves
deserves to be more generally cultivated. It is found here and there
in residential premises about the city ; the accompanying illustration
shows a group of this palm in favorable circumstances.
Washingtonia filifera H. Wendl.
The genus Washingtonia consists of two or three species and a
few varieties all of which may however belong to a single variable
species. W. filifera seems certainly to be distinct from W . robusta
H. Wendl.. but the status of the third species, W. sonorae Hort., is
doubtful. All three are peculiar to North America, where they occur
in the desert regions of Southern California, especially in what is
known as the Colorado Desert. W. filifera is now commonly met with
in cultivation, especially in the southern parts of the United States
and in southern Europe. In Hawaii the species in question has been
much planted about homes and parks, especially in Kapiolani Park at
Waikiki. Confusion exists in regard to the nomenclature of this
Washingtonia filifera H. Wendl.
Washington Palm in Kapiolani Park; the smaller palms are
Livistona chinensis Mart.
palm and another species known as Washingtonia robusta, also culti-
vated in Honolulu, but less common.
If . filifera differs from IV. robusta in the much stouter trunk,
stirrer leaves and in the leafstalks, which are spiny only at the base,
while //*. robusta, contrary to what the name implies, has a tall but
more slender trunk, smaller and flaccid leaves, and petioles armed
with spines up to the leaf segments. The ligule in IV. filifera is
triangular in shape, with membranous projections on the margins, a
peculiarity missing in // . robusta. The latter species may be found
in several places in Honolulu ; fine specimens occur in the grounds
of Ainahou, the former residence of the late Governor Cleghorn.
Single specimens can be seen about town, as on Keeaumoku Street in
Mr. W. M. Giffard's grounds, on Wyllie Street up Nuuanu Valley,
in Mrs. Jaeger's garden near Beretania and Punahou Streets, and
elsewhere. See Plate XI.
The Washingtonias are desert palms, growing wild in the ex-
tensive mesas of the Colorado Desert, the soil of which is stony,
calcareous, clayey or silicious, according to the nature of the rock
from which the soil is derived.
The above species were once referred to the genus Brahea and
even to Pritehardia, a decidedly Polynesian genus, with most of its
species peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands.
Sabal Blackburniana Glazebrk.
The trunk of this species of Palmetto is columnar-cylindrical,
thick, and reaches a height of about forty feet, and a diameter of
over one and a half feet. The trunk is naked, that is not clothed
with the bases of the petioles.
The leaves are suborbicular and exceedingly large, w T ith many
segments, and a petiole of seven feet in length. The spadix is much
shorter than the fronds, and branches three times, with the flowers
densely set. The flowers are relatively large; the black shiny
fruits are the largest in the genus. They are obpyriform, the vertex
is rounded, while the base is very pointed, and symmetrical. The
seeds are brown shining, globose and depressed.
This species occurs as a native exclusively in the Bermuda Isl-
ands but has been planted in gardens a great deal owing to its
beauty and ornamental value. It is one of the most distinct species
of the genus Sabal which possesses about eighteen species. It differs
from Sabal palmetto in its large dimensions, short spadix and ob-pear
shaped fruits. This species is much less common in Honolulu than
Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl.
Another species of Washington Palms in Ainahou, Waikiki.
Sabal palmetto. One fairly good specimen can be seen in the
Sabal Palmetto Lodd.
The genuine Palmetto reaches a height of sixty feet in its native
home, begins flowering rather early, and has the trunk clothed with
the old fronds, the petiole of which, especially the broad base, is
divided into two divaricating parts. The leaves are suborbicular and
have many segments (about eighty). The spadix forms large panicles
which are drooping when in flower and are reflex-curved when in
fruit. The fruits are perfectly spherical, slightly less than half an
inch in diameter; the seeds are globose-depressed and hemispherical
in the upper part.
The Palmetto is widely diffused over the United States extending
from North Carolina to Florida. It is cultivated in Europe and
other subtropical countries. In Honolulu it is much more common
than Sabal Blackburmana. The specimen here illustrated occurs on
the grounds of the Queen Emma home on Nuuanu Avenue. Others
may be found on Beretania Street and King Street in various resi-
dential) grounds, the Government Nursery and in the Punahou
grounds along the stone wall facing Manoa road. The Palmetto is
a useful palm. The young leaf-shoots in the center of the palm are
edible and it is probably this species of which Martius writes that the
soldiers of Panfllio di Narvaez kept alive upon for fourteen days
during an exploration of Florida in the year 1528.
The young leaves are employed in hat making, being first bleached
in a solution of oxalic acid and exposed to sulphur vapors. A wine
is obtained from this palm and the fruits are eaten by the natives
as well as by the birds, the latter being probably responsible for
the wide geographical distribution of the tree.
This palm is grown and reproduced very easily and does excep-
tionally well in swampy ground. A small stemless Sabal is also under
cultivation in Honolulu. It is known scientifically as Sabal Adansoni
Guerns., and has an underground rhyzome and only few fronds.
Mature specimens may be seen at Haleiwa in the hotel grounds,
and on Mrs. Jaeger's premises on King Street, to the left of the
entrance. It is a native of the United States, extending from. North
Carolina to Florida, Arkansas and Texas where it inhabits inundated
regions and can also be encountered near the sea. Many forms of
Sabal Palmetto Lodd.
Palmetto Palm on the grounds of Queen Emma Home, Nuuanu Avenue.
Latania Loddigesii Mart.
Female specimen, growing on the grounds of Hawaiian Sugar
Planters' Experiment Station.
Borassus flabelliformis L.
Palmyra Palm in Kapiolani Park.
this species exist. Its variability in the States is similar to that of
Phoenix spinosa in Africa and Chamaerops humilis in Europe. The
polymorphism of this palm may principally be observed in the vegeta-
tive organs. It adapts itself to almost any climate and thrives in
the hottest regions in India as well as in regions with frost.
Latania Loddigesii Mart.
(Syn. Latania glaucophylla Hort.)
Latania Loddigesii is a dioecious palm reaching a height of fifty
feet. The tomentose leafstalk of this species is three to four and a
half feet long, the margins of the leaf segments are entire in the ma-
ture plant but spiny in the young plant, which is reddish. The old
specimens are very glaucous or bluish green. The blade is three to
five feet long, slightly tomentose on the veins beneath and tinged with
red. The male spadix is five and a half feet long with eight to twelve
branches. The female spadix is three and a half to four feet long with
five to six branches. The drupe is obovate pear-shaped, trigonous, two
and a half inches long by one and three-fourths broad, and contains
usually three seeds. The seed is elongate obovoid with a central ridge
with tree-like branching in the upper third.
This very robust and hardy species is a native of Mauritius but
like many of the ornamental species has been cultivated throughout
the tropics. When young it makes a very decorative pot-plant and
resembles Latania commersonii J. F. Gmel. greatly.
In Honolulu numerous specimens occur; it is easily distinguished
by its large glaucous-whitish fan leaves and large pear-shaped fruits.
Borassus flabelliformis L.
The Palmyra Palm is one of the species of the genus Borassus
which enjoys the widest geographical distribution. It ranges from
the northeastern part of Arabia through India to Ceylon and Burmah
where immense groves of this remarkable plant may be found on
the banks of the Irrawaddy below the capital of Burmah. From
Burmah it extends through Netherlandish India to New Guinea.
A mature specimen is from, sixty to seventy feet high with a trunk
about five and a half feet in circumference at the base. The stiff
Coelococcus carolinensis Dingl.
A Caroline Ivory-nut Palm on Mr. Scott's premises in Hilo, Hawaii.
fan-shaped leaves extend from the base to the top of the tree up to
forty feet in height when undisturbed, only the older specimens
showing a trunk. The petioles become from three to four feet long
and are armed with spines on the edges, being silicious and ser-
rated. The foliage is distributed in three spiral rows around the
trunk; the blade has from seventy to eighty rays and each tree has
from twenty-five to forty fresh green leaves at a time. The male
and female flowers are produced on different trees and appear about
the twelfth or fifteenth year after planting. The sex of the tree
cannot be determined till that time. The fruits of the Palmyra
Palm vary considerably on different trees. They fall to the ground
The Tamils of India enumerate eight hundred and one uses
for this species. The flower stalks are tapped for toddy similar to
the wine palm, the fruits roasted or eaten raw. A fibre is ex-
tracted from the leafstalks and is used for rope and twine making, it
is exceedingly strong and wiry. Toddy (the sap) is boiled down to
sugar, the quantity of sugar made from the juice of this palm is very
considerable. The peduncles are the portion tapped, and tapping is
done only before flowering has begun, the sap is collected in pots
tied to the cut peduncle. The germinated seeds, that is the young
seedlings, are eaten as a vegetable. The outer shell of the trunk is
exceedingly hard, consisting of a solid mass of thick fibro-vascular
bundles. It is employed for various purposes, and is stated to support
a greater cross-strain than any other known wood ; the center is soft.
In medicine the sap plays an important part and is used as a laxa-
tive; a poultice of the toddy with added rice flour is a valuable
stimulant application to gangrenous ulcerations and carbuncles.
Other parts of the palm have also valuable medicinal properties.
Only three specimens are known to the writer in Honolulu ; the
best occuring in Kapiolani Park (see illustration). The others are
in the grounds of the Board of Agriculture and Mrs. Jaeger's
premises respectively. None of these specimens have as yet flowered.
The specimen in Kapiolani Park was unfortunately trimmed and
robbed of its lower leaves by the inexperienced care-taker.
Coelococcus carolinensis Dingl.
Caroline Ivory-nut Palm.
The Ivory-nut Palm reaches a considerable height and has stout
pinnate leaves of a dark green color. The spheroid fruits are about
Caryota urens L.
A fruiting Wine or Fish-tail Palm on Mr. Charles Atherton's grounds.
three and a half inches in diameter, and are covered with a reddish
brown, glossy, scaly shell, which fact places the palm into the tribe
Lepidocarineae. The nuts are of ivory-like texture ; the surface of
the seed is black and shiny, striped but not furrowed. It is a native
of the Caroline Islands and according to Brother Mathias Newell of
Hilo, to whom the writer is indebted for the following information, a
few of these palms were brought to Hilo by Dr. Wetmore, from
Micronesia about thirty years ago. One of these he planted on his
premises where it still stands, but it has not borne fruit as yet.
Another was given to Miss Ellen Lyman who planted it. This
specimen bore abundant fruit, but was cut down to make room for
a building. Mr. Scott of Hilo bought about twelve nuts of this
species from a sea-captain who came from the South Seas in 1886.
Only three of these seeds germinated and but one survived. This
latter, here illustrated, is now a magnificent specimen and bears
fruit in abundance.
The nut yields the commercial vegetable ivory and was formerly
exported from the Caroline Islands to Germany for button making.
There are no specimens of this palm in Honolulu.
Caryota urens Linn.
Wine Palm, Fish-tail Palm.
Caryota urens L. is the oldest and best known species of the
genus Caryota. It is a lofty palm with a trunk of often forty feet
in height and a foot in diameter. The leaves are very large, often
measuring eighteen to twenty feet in length and from ten to twelve
across. It is one of the few palms with twice pinnate leaves ; the
leaflets terminate abruptly somewhat resembling the dorsal fin of
a fish, whence the name Fish-tail Palm. When it has attained its
full height it begins to flower near the apex of the trunk, the flowers
being arranged on long hanging racemes, which are produced in
downward succession till the palm dies. The reddish fruits are
globose and fleshy, the seeds are reniform and the sour juice contained
in the fruit produces an irritation of the skin whence the specific
name urens meaning stinging.
It is a native of Malabar, Bengal, Assam and various other
parts of India where it grows in moist forests. To the natives of
India this palm is highly valuable on account of the large quantity
of toddy or palm wine which it yields, and Dr. Roxburgh states that
the best trees will yield at the rate of a hundred pints in twenty-four
Arenga saccharifera (Wurmb.) Labill.
hours, and the sap continues to How for about a month. When
fresh the toddy is pleasant, but it soon ferments, and when distilled
becomes the arrack or gin of India. Sugar is also obtained by boil-
ing the toddy. The trees are tapped when they are twenty years
old ; the portion tapped is the Mower stalk. Tapping is continued
for eight months in the year, till the rainy season commences, the
trees then become too slippery to be climbed. The trees are how-
ever not allowed to rest but are tapped till exhausted. The pith
or farinaceous part of the trunk is valued as sago which is said to
equal that of the true Sago palm (Metroxylon sagus). It is made
into bread and boiled into thick gruel. From the leaves a fibre is
produced called Kittul, which is very strong and is made into ropes
and other articles.
The limine Palm was once extensively cultivated in Honolulu
but the old trees have begun to flower and the majority of them have
died ; still a goodly number may be observed in private grounds, most
of them however in a flowering state. As no young palms of this
species are being grown it will be only a few years at the most
when this rather handsome species will have disappeared entirely
from Honolulu. The specimen illustrated grows in Mr. Chas.
Atherton's grounds on King street.
Caryota //litis Lour., another species belonging to the genus
Caryota, is cultivated in Honolulu, but there are only very few
specimens, the best one occurring in the Mausoleum grounds on Nuu-
anu Avenue. It differs from the Wine Palm in its soboliferous habit,
small stature and very thin trunk and has a rather bushy appearance.
The seeds are much smaller than in the foregoing species. It also is
a native of India.
Arenga Saccharifera (Wurmb.) La bill.
The Genus Arenga, numbering about; ten species, is distributed
from tropical Asia and Malay to Australia, with five species in the
The Sugar Palm, which occurs throughout the Philippines and
is in cultivation in Honolulu and possibly on Hawaii, is a native of
India and Malaya. Its stout trunk, marked with rather distant an-
nular scars reaches a height of thirty to thirty-six feet. The leaves
are stiff, ascending, and the basal parts and trunk are clothed with
stout black fibre.
There are more than a hundred leaflets on each side, which are
linear, with lobed and variously toothed apex. The stout flowering
stalks, which are axillary, together with the drooping branches, are
up to five feet in length. The very abundant fruits of the Sugar Palm
are globose-depressed, and about two inches in diameter.
The fibre found at the base of the petiole, is black and re-
sembles horse hair. It is employed in China in caulking the seams
of ships, and is also used as tinder for kindling.
It is also employed for the making of moisture resisting ropes
and cables. This fibre is known in India as Eju.
From the interior of the stem sago is procured, which is how-
ever, inferior to that obtained from the true Sago Palm, but is never-
theless an important article of food, and is the source of the Java
Sago. By certain people in India, the young and blanched leaf-
stalks are eaten as a pickle while the young kernels are made into
preserves with syrup.
The sap of the palm, from which wine, sugar, and vinegar are
prepared, is obtained in the following manner: One of the spadices
or flowering stalks is, on the first appearance of the fruit, beaten on
three successive days with a small stick, with the view of bringing
the sap to the wounded part. The spadix is then cut a little way
from its root (base) and the liquor which pours out is received in
pots of earthenware, in bamboos or other vessels. The Sugar Palm
is fit to yield toddy or palm wine when nine or ten years old and
continues to yield it for two years at the average rate of three quarts
a day. After the tree ceases to yield toddy it is cut down and the
trunk then furnishes the starchy substance known as sago. The
liquid is at first clear, but becomes turbid, whitish and somewhat
acid in a short time, acquiring intoxicating qualities. It is in this
state that great quantities are consumed. To obtain sugar the liquid
is boiled to a syrup, and cooled in small vessels, the form of which
it takes, and in this shape is sold in the markets.
The sugar obtained is dark and greasy, with a peculiar flavor.
According to an estimate a field of thirty acres planted with
these trees should produce two thousand four hundred kilograms of
sugar in a soil quite unfit for any other kind of culture.
In Honolulu only a few scattered trees of this palm can be found.
In the Punahou grounds several trees may be observed as well as in
the grounds of some of the old residences in Honolulu. Its culti-
vation for ornamental purposes has not been encouraged as it is not
a very beautiful plant and dies after having flowered for some years.
Arenga cbtusifolia Mart.
This species is closely allied to the Sugar Palm, but differs from
it in its more slender trunk and its stoloniferous habit — that is, it
sends out underground rhyzomes which send up young shoots at
internodes as much as ten feet or more from the parent tree. Thus
one mature tree may produce quite a number of specimens by vegeta-
It is much handsomer than the Sugar Palm and much more
graceful. The trunk is ringed and gray ; the leaves always dark
green above and dirty white underneath. The flowering spikes are
pendulous, and in the species in question the male spikes appear near
the base of the trunk while the female ones are produced in the
uppermost portion. Like the Sugar Palm it is a native of the Indian
Archipelago, dense shady forests being its favorite locality.
In Honolulu it is found only in two places, the handsomest
specimens are in the grounds of Dr. Hillebrand who undoubtedly
introduced it, and others are at Waikiki in the late Governor
Cleghorn's premises. All species of the Arenga flower only once
during the term of their existence.
Hyophorbe amaricaulis Mart.
The Bottle Palm reaches a height of sixty feet in its native land,
with a bottle shaped trunk fifteen to twenty-four inches in diameter
near the base, diminishing slightly upwards and becoming abruptly
constricted near the base of the leafsheaths.
The leafsheaths are somewhat trigonal and grooved on the face.
The leaf consists of forty to sixty pairs of segments about eighteen
inches long and two broad. The spadix branches in clusters, with
a main stalk of about a foot. The fruit is elliptical, oblong; the
seed elliptical and about half an inch long.
This rather ungainly palm is a native of the Island of Mauritius
and not known to occur wild elsewhere. It is cultivated in Hono-
lulu and can be met with quite frequently in private grounds. The
Arenga obtusifolia Mart.
Another species of Sugar Palm in Mrs. M. E. Foster's grounds,
specimens in Honolulu are usually less than fifteen feet tall. Two
can be seen at the entrance to the building of the Board of Agri-
culture on King Street.
Hyophorbe Verschaffeltii Wendl. is another species belonging to
the genus Hyophorbe which is peculiar to the Islands of the Mas-
carene group. It differs considerably from the Bottle Palm, mainly
in the trunk, which does not reach such a height nor such a diameter
and does not seem to bulge, at least not to the extent of the bottle
palm, and then only a few feet above the ground. The pinnae have
no prominent lateral nerves as in the former species, and the petiole
has a distinct yellow line on the back. The drupe is cylindrical-
oblong, the seed subcylindrical and an inch long. This species is
quite rare in Honolulu ; the writer knows of only four mature
specimens, one in the grounds of "The Roselawn" on King Street
near Keeaumoku Street, the others in Mrs. Jaeger's and Mrs. Foster's
grounds. Mention must be made of Hyophorbe (Chrysalidocarpus)
lutescens Hort., a very handsome house palm, but planted out in
Honolulu in several places. The largest specimen can be seen in
the Moanalua Japanese Garden, while smaller specimens have been
planted in the Japanese Consulate grounds on Nuuanu Street. It
is generally known under the name of Areca lutescens and sold as such
by horticultural dealers.
Oreodoxa regia H. B. K.
The name Oreodoxa which has been taken from the Greek and
is composed of a double word meaning "mountain" and "glory," has
been applied to a tropical American genus consisting of five species.
One is now cultivated in man) tropical countries and is much planted
The Royal Palm has a whitish stout trunk reaching a height of
seventy-five to one hundred twenty feet, and is usually swollen in
the middle, tapering above and below ; the base is also swollen and
is often twenty-four inches in diameter. The leaves are crowded
at the apex, their sheaths are elongated and overlapping; the very
numerous leaflets are narrow and pointed ; the inflorescence is borne
below the leaf-sheaths. The spadix is large, the branches long,
slender and drooping, the two cylindrical spathes or flower bracts
are as long as the spadix or fleshy flowering spike. The flowers are
Oreodoxa regia H. B. K.
In the grounds of the old Claus Spreckels residence on Punahou Street.
The plant to the left is Ravenala madagascariensis. Traveler's Tree.
small and monoecious. The fruit is a drupe, or stone-fruit, and is
oval-oblong and violet blue when mature.
The Royal Palm, a native of Cuba and tropical America is the
most typical of the genus Oreodoxa and is the most common palm
in Cuba, where it is similarly used, as in Honolulu, for avenues, a
purpo.-e to which it is admirably adapted. The peculiarity of this
palm is that there rises upon the white part of the trunk a grass
green smooth shaft, appearing like a column placed upon another;
it is from this green shaft that the leaf-stalk springs.
It is said in the West Indies, that the broad part of the foot-
stalks of the leaves, which form a hollow trough, are used by the
negroes as cradles for their children, and when cut up make ex-
cellent splints for fractures.
In Honolulu this palm is one of the most frequently cultivated
and is especially used along drive-ways as its royal bearing makes it
especially desirable for such purposes. The picture here reproduced
shows a portion of the residential grounds of the old Claus Spreckels
place on Punahou Street. In the immediate foreground is a Traveler's
tree, to the left a Chinese fan palm and to the right Royal Palms.
This species has been in the Islands since 1850.
Oreodoxa oleracea Mart.
The trunk of the Cabbage Palm is not ventricose like that of the
Royal Palm, but is of even thickness, of large diameter, and reaches
a height of one hundred fifty feet. The leaf segments are linear-
lanceolate and pointed, the pinnae are bi-fid at the top, the petiole
long-sheathing. The spadix appears at the base of the cylinder formed
by the leaf-sheaths as in the Royal Palm, but of larger dimensions.
The drupe is incurved, obovoid-oblong while that of the Royal Palm
is ovoid. The Cabbage Palm is therefore most easily distinguished
when mature enough for bearing, by its trunk, which does not bulge
at the middle, its more robust habit, and the obovoid oblong seeds.
It is a native of the West Indies and is one of the loftiest of all
Palms. The broad part of the leaf stalks forms a hollow trough
which is employed as a cradle for the negro children ; when cut up
it makes excellent splints for fractures. The heart is made into
pickles, or when boiled is served as a vegetable, hence the name
In Honolulu mature specimens of this stately palm occur only
in Mrs. M. E. Foster's grounds, once the property of Dr. Wm.
Archontophoenix Alexandrae H. Wendl. et Drude
Growing at Moanalua Gardens.
Hillebrand, who introduced this tine species. Of late it has been
grown from seeds, and many trees have been planted out, especially
in Manoa Valley.
Archcntophoenix elegans Wendl. et Drude
(Syx. Seaforthia elegaxs R. Br.)
Archontophoenix elegans is a very stately palm with an unarmed
ringed trunk and large pinnatisect leaves with reduplicate eroded
segments. The flowers are polygamo-dioecious, and are borne on
branched spadices, and are of a green color. The fruit of this
species is about a third of an inch in diameter but often longer than
broad. The albumen is strongly ruminate, often to the very center
of the seed.
This handsome species is a native of tropical Australia but has
been in cultivation in nearly all tropical countries. It is one of the
palms sold by dealers as a house plant, for which it is well adapted
on account of its elegant habit.
Several specimens have been planted out in Honolulu and are
already bearing an abundance of fruit. Archontophoenix alexandrae
W. et D., a native of Australia, is, however, much more common in
Honolulu. See Plate XX.
Dictyosperma album Wendl. et Drude
(Syn. D. (Areca) Rubra Hort.) Red Palm
Dictyosperma album, the so-called Areca rubra or Red Palm of the
horticulturists, is a stately palm with a trunk forty to fifty feet in
height and a diameter of eight to nine inches, somewhat dilated at
the base. The pinnate leaves are eight to twelve feet long and have
an almost round petiole six to eighteen inches in length. The pinnae
are two to three feet long, two to three inches broad, have one
prominent medial nerve, and three lateral ones on each side. The
veins and margins of the pinnae are green or reddish. In its young
state it has dark green leaves with deep red margins and veins, the
redness disappearing in the adult plants. The spadix is two feet
long with quite reflexed branches twenty to thirty inches in length.
The fruit is ovoid-oblong, pointed, about half an inch long, and
This is a very variable species, of which several forms are known
Dictyosperma album H. Wendl. et Drude
Red Palm in Queen's Hospital grounds.
under horticultural names. It is cultivated very extensively in Hono-
lulu and Hilo; almost every yard having a specimen or two.
It is a native of the Island of Mauritius, but has become a favorite
palm in the gardens of many tropical countries.
Areca Catechu Willd.
The Betel-nut Palm.
See Plate LVI.
The Betel-nut Palm is of elegant growth, rising with a very
erect and slender trunk to the height of forty or even sixty feet ;
the summit is a tuft of beautiful dark foliage. The trunk is rarely
more than six or eight inches in diameter, and is dark green when
young, becoming dark gray with advanced age. The trunk is ringed
with the marks formed by the clasping leaf stalks. The tree ripens
its fruits only once during the year. The long branches with large
ovate, orange-colored fruits, which are pendant from the upper
part of the trunk, enhance the beauty of the tree and are in pleasing
contrast with the dark green pinnate foliage. The exact native home
of the Betel-nut is not known, but is supposed to be the Sunda Isl-
ands. Like the Coconut it has been introduced into many tropical
countries and even into Europe and America where it is grown as
a hot-house plant. While the species in question is fairly common
in Honolulu and Hilo, it is not so plentifully cultivated as other
palms, as for instance, Dictyosperma album. The largest and finest,
also probably the oldest specimens of the Betel-nut palm can be
found in Mrs. Mary E. Foster's premises where they were planted
by Dr. Hillebrand. Any traveler who has even only passed through
Burmah, Bengal, or other lands and islands inhabited by tribes related
to the Malayan race could not help but observe the brick-red lips,
black teeth and otherwise offensive appearance of the mouths of the
native inhabitants. It is caused by the chewing of the Betel-nut,
together with lime, tobacco, and an astringent substance known as
Gambir and the leaves of various species of pepper, as for instance,
Piper betle, Piper meythisticum (the Hawaiian Aiva). The nut is
deprived of its fibrous husk, divided or grated, wrapped in the piper
leaf with a pinch of quicklime and as such is known as the Pan of
India. It injures the teeth, but has a fine aroma, and the odor it
imparts to the breath is quite agreeable. It is also stated that Pan
increases or excites appetite and aids digestion. The active principle
of the Areca-nut is Arecaine and is a powerful agent for destroying
Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
Oil Palm in the Pleasanton Hotel grounds.
tape-worm. It is highly poisonous, like nicotine, and a half grain is
sufficient to kill a rabbit in a few moments.
Elaeis g-uineensis Jacq.
The genus Elaeis consists of about six or seven species which are
natives of tropical America and Africa. The name Elaeis is taken
from the Greek meaning "Olive."
The true Oil Palm grows erect, is twelve to thirty feet in height
and bears at the apex of the trunk numerous pinnate leaves ten to
fifteen feet in length; the leaf-stalks are broad, and serrated. The
leaflets are numerous, linear lanceolate, pointed, nearly three feet
long and one to two inches wide ; the male inflorescence is dense, and
consists of numerous, cylindrical spikes less than half an inch in
diameter. The female inflorescence is also dense and branched, and
the fruits are borne in large dense masses.
The Oil Palm is a native of tropical Africa but is now cultivated
in many tropical countries. The drupes or fruits of the Oil Palm,
which are one-seeded, have an oily husk of a bright vermilion or
more or less yellow color. The fruit of this species yields an oil,
which is of great economic importance in some regions.
According to Dr. Vogel* the Africans prepare a palm soup from
this species, a dish which, when made of boiled palm-nuts only, is
of a delightful flavor. The natives pick the nuts off young trees
which have not yet lost any of their leaves, and consider them
superior to the fruit of older plants; they also cut down the trunks
to collect palm wine. Two products are exported, the oil derived
from the reddish exterior of the pulp of the fruit and the kernel
which is used in Europe for the extraction under pressure of another
oil, similar to that of the coconut and used for like purposes.
In Honolulu this palm is not very plentiful and its cultivation
for ornamental purposes has been neglected on account of the clumsy
appearance produced by its short, thick trunk. An avenue of these
palms leads from the main entrance of the Capitol grounds to the
Capitol building, but they are rarely in fruit now. Single specimens
may be seen here and there about Honolulu. In the Pleasanton
Hotel grounds, fairly mature specimens line the driveway from the
College Street corner, bearing profusely.
* Hnker's Xiger Flora.
Attalea cohune .Mart.
A Cohune-nut Palm in Moanalua Gardens. Palm to the right is
Phoenix dactylifera L.
Attalea Cohune Mart.
Cohune Nut Palm.
The Cohune Nut Palm belongs to the genus Attalea, which num-
bers about twenty members, all natives of tropical America. The
species in question is the northernmost of the genus. Its trunk is
about forty feet high, rarely taller, its leaves are thirty feet long and
the leaflets three feet in length. The flowering spathes appear be-
tween the leaves, and bear yellowish flowers, and ovate fruits the size
of a hen's egg, of a brownish color, containing from one to three
seeds. The fruits grow in clusters each cluster resembling a huge
bunch of grapes.
The Cohune trees yield one crop of nuts each year. An oil is
extracted from the nuts which is said to be superior to coconut oil :
the odor is more pleasant. The strongest argument in favor of
cohune nut oil is that one bottle of the oil extracted is said to burn as
long as two bottles of oil from the coconut. The leaves are em-
ployed as thatch, and from the trunk a palm wine is prepared.
The Cohune is a native of the Isthmus of Panama and is culti-
vated on account of its grandeur. It is well adapted for street
planting and rows of this palm present the appearance of the nave
and aisles of a Gothic Cathedral, the arched leaves meeting overhead
and producing an imitation of vaulted roofs.
Quite a number of specimens of this beautiful palm are in
cultivation in Honolulu, mostly in private grounds. The tallest
ones occur in Mrs. Foster's premises formerly belonging to the late
Dr. Wm. Hillebrand, who introduced a great majority of our
ornamental plants, and is probably responsible for the presence of
this species in Honolulu.
Cocos nucifera L.
Cocoxut Palm. Niu.
Though the Coconut is indigenous to Hawaii, it is such a land-
mark in these Islands that it must be considered, even if not within
the scope of this work.
The centers of distribution and geographical range are the Islands
and countries bordering the Indian and Pacific oceans. The Asiatics
and Polynesians have discovered a number of uses to which it may
be put which would indicate that they must have been familiar with
it from time immemorial. The coconut tree attains a height of
Cocos plumosa Hook.
Feathery Coco-Palm, Government Nursery, Young Street.
nearly a hundred feet, and the gracefully leaning trunk crowned
by the numerous feathery leaves gives a splendid effect. It favors
the sand\' shores and does not only endure salt and salt water
but practically requires it, the salt taking the place of fertilizer.
While it has been employed by the natives of nearly all countries to
which it is indigenous, the Hawaiians did not employ it extensively.
In Hawaii the Coconut does not grow to such luxuriance as in
the Islands of the South Pacific where the atmosphere is much more
humid and rains are more frequent. The Coconut Pahn has many
enemies in Hawaii and one of the most detrimental is the coconut
leaf roller, to which is due the dilapidated appearance of the leaves,
Numerous varieties of coconuts are in cultivation and one with
rather large nuts, known in Honolulu as the Samoan Coconut,
produces a very short trunk with the nuts almost lying on the
While in other tropical countries the copra industry is carried
on at a profit, in Hawaii the number of trees is not sufficient to war-
rant the collecting of the nuts for copra, and it may seem strange
to state that the writer has bought coconuts in Europe cheaper than
here in Hawaii.
Copra is nothing but the dried kernel of the coconut, which is
manufactured into soap, butter and oil. about two quarts of oil
being procured from fourteen or fifteen coconuts. The home of
the coconut is not known. Some contend that it originated on the
shores of the Indian Ocean and others that it is a native of America,
the former theory seems to be much better justified.
Cocos plumosa Hook.
The Feathery Cocopalm.
Cocos plumosa is an exceedingly handsome species, with a straight
trunk of medium height. The leaves are pinnate, feathery, ascending,
and arch gracefully ; the segments are long and narrow and of a
dark green. The flowers are borne in a drooping spadix. The fruits
are ovate, pointed, and about an inch long. Cocos plumosa which
lends itself well to street planting is quite a hardy palm ; it is a native
of South America, as are most of its congeners which have, how-
ever, been taken out of the genus Cocos by Dr. O. Beccari and placed
into new genera, the names of which served as subgeneric ones under
Cocos. What was known as Cocos Romanzoffiana Cham., is now
-Slfe- ~-^r u.
!; : l*., -,^-*^^^^- : ^i^^-
^ « t&EHvbSI Tl *H MR$
-— ^2mi Hsi -- : ■■'•■■'*• '^ ::: '¥i
Cocos Romanzoffiana Cham.
On Vineyard Street.
Palmae-Cyclanthaceae-Musaceae. 5 7
Arecastrum Romanzojhanum (Cham.). Becc. Of this latter species
a number of specimens occur about Honolulu, one on Vineyard Street;
one on Kamehameha Avenue in Manoa Valley, to the left of car
line switch, and a few but rather poor specimens in Kapiolani Park.
See Plate XXV.
Both species are natives of Brazil. Besides these two Cocos there
are two or three other species in cultivation with pinnate, glaucous
leaves; their identity is however not established. They have been
introduced by Mr. Jordan and are now growing (quite mature
specimens) in his premises on Wyllie Street, Nuuanu Valley. In the
grounds of Lunalilo Home occurs a species with globose, yellowish-
pink, edible fruits, which must be referred to Cocos odorata Rodr.
Of the Family Cyclanthaceae, a close congener and relative of
the Palm family, which it resembles or equals, in the vegetative
organs, but allied to the Aroids in its reproductive organs, the
genus Carludovica is represented only by a single species, Carludovica
palmata Ruiz, et Pav. the Panama Hat Plant, usually considered
a palm by the layman. It is a stemless plant, a native of Peru, but
now cultivated for commercial purposes, the well known Panama
hats being manufactured from the leaves. Specimens may be seen in
Mrs. E. A. Jaeger's premises near the entrance. Mention may be
made of the family Araceae or Taro family of which several orna-
mental species are under cultivation. The climber with large golden-
yellow and green leaves which are so frequently seen ascending the
trunks of Royal Palms and Algaroba trees is Scindapsus aureus
(Lindl. et Andre) Engl., others are species of Philodendron, Raphi-
dophora, and Syngonium podophyllum Schott. with five to seven
Monstera deliciosa Liebm. a huge climber with large perforated
leaves and edible fruits is a native of Mexico, and is not uncommon
in the Islands.
This family is represented by three genera, Musa, Ravenala, and
Strclitzia. To the first belong the different species and varieties of
Bananas, of which Musa Cavendishii Lamb, the Chinese Banana is
the most commonlv cultivated. This banana is rather short stemmed
Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn.
Traveler's Trees in the Royal Hawaiian Hotel Grounds
and is cultivated by the Chinese in Honolulu ; a small plantation
can be seen in the swamps along Kalakaua Avenue opposite the Sea-
side Hotel. The Brazilian Banana, a tall plant, can be found usually
near dwelling places. For further reference in regard to Bananas
see: Gerrit P. Wilder, "Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands."
The Genus Strelitzia is represented by the cultivated species
Reginae from South Africa, in a few places in Honolulu as Mrs.
Foster's and Mrs. Jaeger's premises, the former on Nuuanu Avenue,
the latter on corner of King and Punahou Streets. The genus
Ravenala, however, is of the greatest interest, and is here treated
separately. Heliconia metall'ica is also present.
Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn.
Traveller's Palm, or Traveller's Tree.
The Traveller's Tree or Palm, as it is often erroneously called,
belongs to the Banana family and has nothing in common with the
palms. It is a unique and striking-looking tree and reaches a height
of often forty to fifty feet. As its specific name implies, it is a native
of Madagascar. Another species of this genus occurs only in Brazil
and Guiana, South America.
The Traveller's Tree has been in cultivation for several decades,
and a few handsome specimens can be found in various gardens and
residential grounds about Honolulu. It is remarkable for the ar-
rangement of the leaves, which resemble a huge fan. The leaves are
often twelve to fifteen feet in length but are more or less torn into
ribbons like those of the Bananas when planted in exposed situations.
The name Traveller's Tree has been given it on account of its
supposed service to travellers in the forest region and deserts, it be-
ing capable of storing water in the leaf sheaths near the base where
they join the stem. There seems not to be any need, however, for
using this usually putrid water, as the tree grows in regions where
water is usually plentiful.
The leaves are used in Madagascar for roofs and packing ma-
terial, while the split leaf stalks and leaf midribs serve for thatch-
ing; they are braided together and employed as doors, and the huts
of the natives are often constructed altogether from the braided leaf
stalks. The plant is propagated from seed as well as from root
suckers; it loves a moist, hot climate, and is quite ornamental.
An avenue of Casuarina equisitifolia Stickm. in Kapiolani Park.
Subclass Dicotyledon es.
Plants belonging to this subclass have a more complex stem-
structure, the fibrovascular system being arranged in concentric
layers; these are divided into medularry rays which radiate from a
central column called the pith. By tar the greatest number of
plants belong to this subclass.
Casuarina equisitifolia Stickman.
I RON' WOOD.
Plate XXVI I.
The Ironwood is a large, rapid-growing, evergreen tree, with
leafless branches which are drooping, cylindrical, and have sheaths
of awl-shaped scales at the joints. They are deciduous and take the
place and perform the functions of leaves. It has the appearance of
a pine. The branches are jointed like an equisitum stem, hence the
The genus Casuarina, named on account of the pendant branch-
lets, resembling the feathers of the Cassowary, was formerly classed
with the conifers, but is now recognized as the only known genus
of a distinct family.
The tree, which is planted as wind-breaks and is especially com-
mon near the seashore at Waikiki and Kapiolani Park, attains a
very large size and diameter of trunk ; it loves the sandy tracts near
the sea and forms on some of the South Pacific Islands the greater
portion of the strand forests of which the Hawaiian Islands are so
devoid. The tree is of very wide distribution, ranging from Aus-
tralia to the Malayan Islands, India and the islands of the Pacific.
It is now cultivated in many tropical or subtropical countries and
can be found in Florida, California, and parts of South America.
Nice avenues of this tree, one of which is here figured, can be found
in Kapiolani Park at Waikiki, while single trees can often be seen
on residential premises.
The bark of the Ironwood is used in tanning, and a brown dye
is extracted from it. It is slightly astringent and is used as a tonic
in infusions, as well as being useful in treating chronic dysentery.
The wood is exceedingly hard ; it cracks and splits, however, and
is difficult to cut. As firewood it serves well, as it burns readily and
the ashes retain the heat for a long time. In Fiji the natives use the
wood for tapa beaters, while the Australian aborigines make war
clubs from it. It is of a light brown color, close-grained and prettily
Besides this species there is one other cultivated in the Territory,
C. quadrivalvis, an upland species mainly planted along the Pali road
— a continuation of Nuuanu Avenue. In Australia the latter tree
is known as He Oak and Beef Wood.
The Mulberry family is represented in the Islands by several
introduced genera of which the genus Ficus is the predominant one.
Mention may be made of Morus nigra L., the black mulberry, which
has been in cultivation here for decades.
The species of Ficus, represented by cultivated ones only, are
quite numerous in and about Honolulu and elsewhere in the Terri-
tory. There are also species of Castilloa under cultivation, Castilloa
elastica Cerv. and another species from Nicaragua.
Of the genus Artocarpus several varieties of Artocarpus communis
Forst., the common Breadfruit and Artocarpus integrifolia the Jak-
fruit are commonly met with.
The plants of ornamental value which concern us most, however,
belong to the genus Ficus.
Ficus elastica Roxb.
India Rubber Tree.
The India Rubber Tree, cultivated as a pot plant in many temper-
ate climates, when planted out in the tropics, reaches a height of forty
or more feet, is glabrous throughout, and has a spreading crown. It
begins life as an epiphyte, sending down adventitious roots from the
trunk and larger branches. The leaves are leathery, smooth and
shining. The tree is easily recognized by the pink or red stipules
which enclose the young leaves. It is a native of India but has been
in cultivation practically throughout the civilized world, even in the
northern parts of Europe and America, where it is used for room
In its native home it grows in the damp forests from the base
of the Himalayas in Sikkim to Assam and Arracan. It is also frequent
in Upper Burmah where it is said that whole forests of it exist.
The tree vields the Caoutchouc of Indian commerce. In Hono-
lulu scattered specimens may be found, several good specimens oc-
curring on Kalakaua Avenue near the Moana Hotel and Royal Grove.
Ficus bengalensis L.
Ficus bengalensis not to be mistaken for Ficus indica, a much
smaller tree of thirty feet in height, and growing erect, is a large
tree attaining a height of seventy to one hundred feet, sending down
roots from its branches and thus expanding horizontally. Like other
species of Ficus it begins life as an epiphyte, the fruits being carried
by birds into the branches of other trees and there the seeds germinate,
later on dealing death to the host.
The side branches of the Banyan reach often such thickness that
they finally become auxiliary trunks and the forest-like expansion con-
tinues sometimes over an acre, sufficient to afford shade for many
Enormous specimens exist in India, its native home. One is
spoken of as having a circumference of tw T o thousand feet and as
able to give shade to 20,000 people.
It is reported as one of the greatest enemies to buildings, especially
in Bengal ; the seeds contained in bird droppings germinate on the
walls of houses and temples.
It grows wild in the sub-Himalayan tracts and the lower slopes
of the Deccan but has been planted in many tropical countries. In
Honolulu numerous specimens occur, some of the finest in the late
Mr. Cleghorn's garden at Waikiki and in Kapiolani Park. Others
may be seen on Beretania Street near Punahou, and elsewhere.
The name Banyan was first given this tree at a place called
Gombroon in India where Hindu traders called Banyans had settled
and had built a pagoda.
The French traveler, Tavernier, speaks of it as the Banyan's
tree ; others state that it was a favorite tree of the Banyans or
It is a favorite roadside tree and should be planted as such along
country roads where shade is required.
The Banyan yields an inferior rubber of no commercial value,
while the red figs are eaten in India by the poorer classes, especially
in times of famine. The milky juice is employed medicinally by the
natives of India and is used externally for bruises and as an anodyne
application in lumbago and rheumatism, and in Lahore the milky
juice has been employed to aid in the oxidation of copper.
The Hindus consider the banyan to be sacred and state that
Brahma was transformed into a Vada tree, } ada being one of the
vernacular names of this tree in India. The Hindus regard it a
sin to destroy a Banyan ; women are ordered to worship it on a cer-
tain day of the year (May 15th, the J esht shudh), and are told that
by doing so they attain one of the heavens.
In Honolulu the tree is badly infested by scale insects which are
followed by a black fungus (Capnodium lanosum) giving the tree an
Ficus religiosa L.
The Peepul Tree.
The Peepul is a large glabrous usually epiphytic tree with long
petioled, ovate, rounded leaves the apex of w T hich tapers into a linear-
lanceolate prolonged acumen. The fruit is borne sessile, is dark
purple and has broad leathery basal bracts.
The Peepul is a native of the sub-Himalayan tracts but is culti-
vated throughout India as high as 5,000 feet elevation but rare in
the arid regions of Northwestern India. In Honolulu it is not so
commonly planted as the Banyan but fine specimens may be seen at
Moanalua Gardens, and in private grounds and parks about Hono-
lulu. It is well suited for avenues. It is declared sacred by the
Hindus and Buddhists, the former viewing it as the female to the
Banyan. It is worshipped and vows are made to it. The Buddhists
believe that the incarnation of Buddha took place under this tree,
and that he received the Buddhaship under the famous sacred Peepul
at Budhgaya in India not far from Benares.
Ficus benjamina L.
The so-called Chinese Banyan is of much smaller stature than the
Bengal or Indian Banyan, reaching a height thirty to forty-five feet,
it too is epiphytic and assumes tree form. Its branches are long and
drooping. The leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate, quite smooth,
pointed at the apex and rounded at the base. The fruits are axillary,
solitary and sessile, of a dark purple color, fleshy when mature, about
a half an inch or less in diameter. It occurs wild along the base of
the eastern Himalayas to Assam, Burmah and the Andaman Islands.
It is cultivated in the Malay peninsula, the Philippines and also
in Honolulu, where quite a number of specimens can be found. Four
are at Thomas Square Park, others in residential grounds around the
city and in other public parks. The wood of this tree is of a gray
color, beautifully mottled, and is moderately hard.
Numerous other species of Ficus are under cultivation in Hono-
lulu the most noteworthy being the ordinary Smyrna fig Ficus carica
L., Ficus Rumphii Blume, a species greatly resembling the Peepul,
but with leaves much less caudately acuminate, represented by a
single specimen cultivated at Mrs. Mary E. Foster's premises; in
in the same locality is a specimen of Ficus hispida L. a native of the
Himalayas but of wide distribution ranging over China to Australia.
Ficus parcelli Hort. a horticultural species with variegated, yellow
mottled leaves occurs in the former premises of W. M. Giffard, while
Ficus heterophylla L. a pubescent creeper, becoming a shrub, if un-
molested, is very common, usually trained over walls of buildings.
It is a polymorphous species whose leaves are in general small, but
become of large size on lateral branches, on which are borne the large
pear-shaped dry figs. It has to be kept down or else will grow into a
big shrub. A single specimen of Ficus infectoria Roxb. w T ith thin,
papery leaves on long petioles, with small, pinkish figs, occurs in Dr.
W. Hillebrand's grounds.
Other species not yet determined are also under cultivation in
The family Proteaceae is represented by the cultivated species of
Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. and G. Banksii R. Br. both of Australia.
Another valuable tree is Macadamia tcrnifolia known as the Macad-
amia nut tree. The latter is extensively cultivated by Mr. Jordan
on his grounds in Nuuanu, while other specimens are scattered about
Honolulu. An accessible specimen occurs at the Government Nursery
on King Street.
Grevillea robusta A. Cunn.
The Silky Oak.
The genus Grevillea is quite large, approaching two hundred
species, nearly all of which are peculiar to Australia, only a few oc-
curring in New Caledonia. In Honolulu there are about three
species in cultivation, the Silky Oak and two shrubs, one with bright
red the other with whitish vellow flowers.
The Silk} - Oak, which is a large tree, in fact the largest in the
genus, may be seen planted along roadsides, as on Young Street behind
the quarters of the Board of Agriculture, and along various other
streets in Honolulu. It often, reaches a height of eighty to one hun-
dred feet, and is quite robust, whence its specific name. The generic
name refers to the Right Hon. C. F. Greville, a patron of botany in
the beginning of the Nineteenth Century.
The leaves are pinnate, graceful and fern-like, six to eight inches
long and silky underneath ; the tree bears a profusion of orange-
yellow flowers on racemes which are solitary or several on short
leafless branches. The follicle (a fruit of one carpel) is somewhat
leather}', opens in two valves and encloses a winged seed which is
extremely light, and as the trees are usually quite lofty it is diffi-
cult to collect the seeds, which are blown about by the wind as
soon as the follicles open.
The timber of the Silky Oak is light in color but has handsome
oak-like markings. It has been employed for wine casks, but seems
to be too porous to hold spirits. It was formerly used in Australia
for milk buckets and other dairy utensils, and has now come into
use again for butter boxes.
The trunk gives off an exudation of both gum and resin which
is of a peculiar yellow color and has a very disagreeable odor.
The Silky Oak is a native of Queensland, where it occurs in the
brush forest, but not many miles from the coast. It is quite droueht-
resistant, and has on that account been cultivated and planted ex-
tensively in many tropical countries. Its tenacious vitality, quick
growth, hardiness and value of timber make it a desirable tree. In
this Territory it flourishes from sea-level to four thousand feet ele-
vation on Haleakala, Maui, and is not at all particular in regard to
climate. Owing to its being deciduous or rather semi-deciduous it
is not well suited for street planting, and as its appearance is not
altogether graceful it should not be used for avenues, but should be
planted where wind-break is required or for other utilitarian rather
than ornamental purposes.
Grevillea Banksii R. Br., which is a tall shrub or slender tree
fifteen to twenty feet in height, has red flowers, is much smaller
than the Grevrllea robusta, and indeed worth}- of cultivation. It is
indigenous to Queensland.
The family Polygonaceae is represented by two genera and in
turn each genus by one species. Coccoloba uvifera Jacq., the Sea
grape or Pigeon wood, is a tree of medium or large size and grows
near the sea in the West Indies. In Jamaica the wood is esteemed for
cabinet work. It is propagated by cuttings. A specimen may be seen
in Mr. Jordan's grounds on Wyllie Street, Nuuanu.
Muehlenbeckia platyclada Meissn. is a shrub, often climbing,
with phyllodic branches resembling the broad, flat Hawaiian
Mistletoe, and fleshy leaves which it throws off soon after their ap-
pearance. It is a native of the Solomon Islands, and is sparingly
cultivated in Honolulu. To this family belongs also the Mexican
Creeper Antigonon leptopus H. et A. a native of West Mexico and
commonly cultivated in Honolulu, where only the red variety is seen.
No introduced arborescent species of this family are to be found
in Honolulu or elsewhere in the Territory but there are several
climbers of great beauty which cannot well be omitted. The genus
Bougainvillea named after De Bougainville, a French navigator, com-
prises the well known climbers.
Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. is the most commonly cultivated
species, the floral bracts being either purple, red or brick red, the
latter is horticulturally known as var. lateritia Hort. ; the small
flowered everblooming variety is botanically known as B. spectabilis
Willd. var. parviflora Mart.
Bougainvillea glabra Choisy a perfectly glabrous species with
rose-red bracts is also in cultivation. It differs from B. spectabilis
Willd. in the branches and leaves, which are perfectly glabrous, in
the lanceolate leaves and elliptical-lanceolate bracts.
Of the Family Amaranthaceae the following may be mentioned
but does not come within the scope of this work: Alternanthera
versicolor Regel, a small border plant with variegated leaves, a native
probably of Brazil.
The Magnolia Family is represented by the two introduced
genera, Michelia and Magnolia. Of the former, two species are in
cultivation, M. chain paca L. and M. fuscata Blume, of the later
Magnolia grandiflora L. only. Michelia champaca L. is a small tree
with pubescent branches and ovate-lanceolate leaves ; the flowers are
yellowish, waxy, and exceedingly fragrant. It is a native of India
and is known in Honolulu as Mulang. Specimens may be seen in
Mrs. M. E. Foster's premises. The second species, M. fuscata Blume,
is a shrub with the young shoots brown-pubescent ; the flowers are
small, erect, and brownish, and also very fragrant. It is a native of
China, and specimens may be seen on the above-mentioned premises.
The Magnolia does not grow so luxuriantly as in the southern
United States, but remains stunted, barely reaching a height of fifteen
or twenty feet. It grows better in the uplands, as on Maui on the
slopes of Haleakala, where it is in cultivation.
The Anona family is distributed exclusively in the tropics, es-
pecially within those of Asia, Africa and America. In Honolulu a
number of genera are under cultivation. The genus Anona is well
represented by the edible species Anona muricata L. the Sour;op, A.
squamosa L. the Sugar Apple, A. Cherhnolia Mill., the Cherimolia.
and A. reticulata L., known as Bullock's Heart or Custard Apple.
All four species are of South American origin, but are cultivated for
their fruits practically throughout the tropics. Of the genus Poly-
althia there is one species in Honolulu grown in Queen's Hospital
grounds. It is a small tree or shrub with small dark purple globose
fruits, erroneously recorded by G. P. Wilder as Bumelia Sp. in his
book on the "Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands," plate 117.
Canangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill.
( Syn. Cananga odorata Hk. f. et Th.)
The Ilang ilang is a medium-sized to rather large tree with droop-
ing branches; the leaves are oblong-ovate with a pointed apex and
usually rounded base and are five to eight inches long. The flowers,
which are greenish and very fragrant, are pendulous and turn yellow
when mature, the flowerstalks are elongated when in fruit, the petals
are lanceolate, one and one-half inches long and one-third inch wide.
The fleshy fruit is oblong-cylindrical, green or the color of a ripe
olive, and little less than an inch long.
The Hang Hang is a native of Burmah, Java, Tenasserim and the
Philippines, but has been in cultivation in many parts of India and
other tropical countries on account of its sweet-smelling flowers. In
Honolulu the tree is not uncommon, and may be found in a great
many private grounds as well as in the Government Nursery and a
few public parks.
An oil prepared from the flowers is known as Otto of Hang and
is highly esteemed. The flowers are distilled in large quantities
for the valuable perfume oil which is frequently blended with pimento,
rose, tuberose and jasmine in the preparation of handkerchief per-
The wood of the Hang Hang is soft and white, and not very dur-
able. The Samoans make small canoes of it, while the Malayans
hollow out the trunks into drums or tomtoms. The flowers are often
strung into wreaths and garlands by the South Sea Islanders. The
tree may be readily propagated from cuttings or seeds ; it thrives well
in moist warm climates, and flowers and fruits all the year round.
The oil of the Hang Hang, valuable as a perfume oil, is exported
from the Philippines in steadily increasing quantities, amounting in
value to over one hundred thousand dollars annually.
Artabotrys uncinatus (L.) Merrill, also known as Hang-Hang,
is a scandent woody shrub, glabrous throughout. The flowers are
fragrant, solitary or in pairs. The ripe fruit is about 2 inches long,
obovoid and yellow 7 . It is a native of India and Ceylon, but is now
cultivated in many tropical countries. In Honolulu it is trained into
arbors and made to climb over trees and verandas. Specimens may
be seen in Dr. Cooper's premises opposite the Normal School and
also on Wilder Avenue. The odor of the strongly scented flowers
reminds one very much of that of Canangium odoratum.
Of the Myristicaceac or Nutmeg Family, the Nutmeg, Myristica
fragrans Houtt. is the only member cultivated in Honolulu. In
fact there is only one single male tree to be found ; it grows in Mrs.
M. E. Foster's premises and was introduced by Dr. W. Hillebrand.
The Laurel Family is distributed over the warmer parts of both
hemispheres, but is chiefly tropical. In Honolulu there are under
cultivation two genera, Cinnamomum and Persea; the first, more
definitely described below, is represented by two species, the Cinna-
mon and Camphor tree, the latter by one species, Persea americana
Mill., the well-known Alligator Pear or Avocado, a native of tropical
America. It has been planted in most tropical and subtropical coun-
tries on account of its highly prized fruit.
Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) Bl.
The True Cinnamon is a tree of medium height and is glabrous,
with the exception of the finely silky-pubescent buds. The leaves are
leathery and shining, oval in outline and are strongly three- to five-
nerved. The flowers, which are pale yellow, are borne numerously
on panicles of the length of the leaves, clustered in the upper axils.
The fruit is less than half an inch long, oblong ovoid, slightly fleshy
and is surrounded by the enlarged perianth. The True Cinnamon is
a native of the forests of Ceylon, but is now cultivated on that island
as well as in Southern India.
Various products are derived from the Cinnamon tree, which are
commercially exploited. For instance, the root of the tree yields
camphor, while of the fibre or inner bark an essential oil is procured
which is of considerable importance. Cinnamon is exported from
Ceylon in the form of sticks about 40 inches long, formed of tubular
pieces of bark about a foot long, and one placed within the other
dexteriously. The bark composing the stick is extremely thin and
has a light brown dull surface with a fragrant odor quite peculiar
to this species and allied harks of the same genus.
Medicinally, cinnamon, which is aromatic and stimulant, is used
in spasmodic affections of the bowels and gastric irritation.
A volatile oil is distilled from the leaves known as "clove oil,"
similar to the genuine oil of cloves, and used in toothache.
The only mature specimens known to the writer are on the prem-
ises of the late Dr. Win. Hillebrand, who is responsible for its intro-
duction. The trees, which are of considerable height, bear seed
profusely, young seedlings coming up under the trees at all times.
Another species of this genus Cinnamomum camphora Nees, the
Camphor Tree, reaches quite large dimensions ; it has smooth shining
leaves, which when crushed emit a strong odor of camphor. It is a
native of China, Japan and the Malay Islands and is of early intro-
duction. Quite a number of trees can be found scattered throughout
the Territory. Large specimens may be seen in the Royal Mausoleum
grounds on Nuuanu Avenue near the entrance; others occur on Maui,
Hawaii and probably elsewhere in the Territory, where it has been
under cultivation for many years.
This family is represented by the following species only :
Hernandia peltata Meissn.
Hernandia peltata is a large spreading tree with thick, bright
green, broadly ovate pointed leaves, which are peltately attached near
the base, the larger ones being nearly a foot long. The flowering
panicles are shorter than the leaves, and the flowers are almost clus-
tered on the branches ; the female flowers are terminal, with one or
two male flowers lower down. The fruit is completely enclosed with
the involucel which becomes inflated globular and fleshy, with a
circular entire orifice at the top; the fruit is about an inch in dia-
meter and marked with eight broad, raised, longitudinal ribs. The
seeds are very hard, and are about three-fourths of an inch in dia-
This evergreen tree is a native of Southeast Asia, the South
Pacific, Mascarene and Philippine Islands, Guam and Loo Choo Isl-
and, besides occurring also in Queensland, Australia, in all of which
countries it grows in the coast forest. The wood is very light, and
takes fire readily from a flint and steel.
The juice is a powerful depilatory and removes hair without pain.
The bark and leaves act as a cathartic. Very few trees are in culti-
vation in Honolulu. The largest specimen grows in the grounds of
the Board of Agriculture on King Street. The author collected it
on the shores of Guam, and young specimens have now been planted
on the College grounds.
Moringa oleifera Lam.
Flowering specimen and fruit.
Hernandia bivalvis Beuth.
Hernandia bivalvis is a small tree with ovate-lanceolate, pointed
leaves which are not peltate at the base. The inflorescence is as in
H. peltata. The involucel, which is very large and encloses the fruit,
is not simple but bi-valved, consisting of two inflated, almost mem-
braneous, valves which are cordate at the base. The fruit is about
ten-ribbed and the seed is as in the other species. It is a native of
Queensland, Australia. Only one single tree occurs in Honolulu ; it
can be found on the grounds of the Government Nursery, near the
Young Street side.
Moringa oleifera Lam.
The Horse-radish Tree is of medium height, never more than
twenty-five feet, has a corky bark, and roots with a pungent taste.
The leaves are pinnate, pale beneath, and thin. The white flowers are
borne in spreading panicles. The pod is pendulous, three-angled, and
ribbed ; the seeds are also triquetrous and winged on the angles. The
tree, though widely distributed in the tropics, is a native of Asia,
occurring in the Himalayan tracts but is commonly cultivated in In-
dia, Burmah, and in some parts of Africa, especially in Togo, where
it is planted from cuttings as a hedge. The seeds yield a rather clear,
colorless oil, which is easily extracted by means of pressure. It is
composed of olein, margarine and stearine, and is considered one of
the best lubricants for fine machinery and is especially valued by
watch-makers, but is also used for the manufacture of perfumed hair-
oil, owing to its great power of absorbing and retaining the most
In India, flowers, leaves, and pods are cooked in various ways as
a pot-herb, while the root is used as a condiment. The roots of
young trees when scraped resemble horse-radish, and taste so much
like it that the nicest palate could not distinguish the two. There
are probably not more than three mature specimens of this tree in the
Territory. The writer understands that a number of young plants
have been raised from seed at Kahana by Mr. Leckenby. The one
which is in Dr. W. Hillebrand's garden is probably the first speci-
Legume or Bean Family.
The vast Legume or Bean Family is represented in the Hawaiian
Islands by man)' introduced as well as native species ; the introduced
species are much more numerous than the indigenous or native ones
which have been treated in the writer's book, "The Indigenous Trees
of the Hawaiian Islands." In the present volume only such of the
introduced species are discussed or figured as are of arborescent char-
acter and of more or less ornamental value.
The family Leguminosae is divided into three very natural sub-
families as follows: Mimosoideae with regular flowers, valvate petals,
and definite or indefinite stamens; Caesalpinioideae with irregular
flowers, petals imbricate, the upper petal innermost, sometimes re-
duced to one or three and definite stamens; Papilionatae with very
irregular petals, the flower butterfly-like, the upper petal outermost ;
the stamens definite, their filaments variously united. All three di-
visions have the characteristic pod or legume which may be dry or
fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent, and is variably one to many-seeded.
Among the numerous species found in and about Honolulu the fol-
lowing less conspicuous members are only mentioned here, as space
forbids going into detail.
In the Mimosoideae group belong the common Klu or Aroma,
Acacia Farnesiana ( L. ) Willd., a much branched spiny shrub or
small tree with fragrant globose, yellow flower heads. It grows in
common with the Algaroba and frequents the arid regions. It is a
native of tropical America. Mention may also be made of the two
Australian wattles Acacia decurrens and Acacia dealbata both planted
on Tantalus, as well as Acacia catechu. Albizzia lebbekoides is rare
in Honolulu, the writer knowing only of one tree, in Mrs. Foster's
grounds on Nuuanu Avenue ; it has finely pinnate leaves and nar-
row thin papery pods. Albizzia stipulata, recognizable by its large
conspicuous stipules, may be found in the Government Nursery
grounds on King Street. Parkinsonia aculeata, an undesirable very
spiny shrub, is of later introduction and was first planted by the
army along the waterfront. Leucaena glauca, the Koa haole of the
natives, is an introduced shrub more often a weed with rather large
globose, white flower heads, found on the lower mountain slopes and
waste places. Of the Caesalpinioideae may be found Intsia biiuga
(Colebr. ) O. Kuntze, a native of tropical Madagascar and Poly-
nesia; only one tree is known to the writer, growing in Hilo at St.
Mary's School. To the Papilionatae belong the following species:
Cassia nodosa Ham.
Pink and White Shower
After a painting by W. R. R. Potter
Dalbergia sissou Roxb., a handsome tree of which a single specimen
occurs in Honolulu on King Street in the Government Nursery.
Clitorea ternatea Lam. a scandent vine with blue flowers is not un-
common. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. ) Steud. was first introduced by
Air. and Airs. F. M. Swanzy from the Philippines and may still be
seen growing on their premises facing Alanoa Valley Road. In the
Philippines it is a very handsome shrub or small tree, but it has
not become acclimated in Hawaii. Alention may be made of two
handsome trees ; the one with yellow flowers and flat papery pod with
one seed is Platymiscium ft 'o rib nudum, a native of South America,
the other with purplish red flowers arranged in dense axillary
racemes, belongs to the genus Lonchocnrpus and is probably a native
of Africa. Both these species, of each of which there is only a single
tree, have been introduced by Dr. William Hillebrand and can be
found in his old premises now belonging to Airs. Alary E. Foster,
on Nuuanu Avenue.
A number of Leguminous trees have been imported by the writer
lately and especial mention may be made of the king of flowering
trees, Amherstia nobilis, which he brought from Java, as well as
species of Brownea (grandiceps and hybrida) Saraca declinata, sev-
eral species of Bnuhinin, Schizolobium excelsum, Parkin Timoriana
and Pahudia rhomboidea the latter two from the Philippines. Seeds
of numerous leguminous trees were also imported which have germi-
nated and may be expected to become established.
Key to the Subfamilies
Flowers regular, petals valvate ; stamens definite or indefinite,
Flowers irregular, upper petal innermost, petals imbricate, some-
times reduced to one or three; stamens definite II. Caesalpinioideae.
Petals very irregular, butterfly-like, upper petal outermost, sta-
mens definite, their filaments variously united III. Papilionatae.
Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieseb.
Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieseb. is a lofty spreading tree,
glabrous throughout. The leaves are pinnate and each pinna consists
of twenty to thirty pairs of leaflets which are unequal-sided, oblong,
pointed and glaucous beneath. The leafstalk bears glands between
Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grieseb.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
the lowest and uppermost pinnae. The calyx is puberulous and
more than half as long as the corolla. The numerous white stamens
are united at the base. The pod is repand, forming a complete cir-
cle, the rounded top touching the rounded base, it is one and a half
to nearly two inches broad with the basilar sinus closed. The whole
fruit is consequently three to four inches in diameter. It is dark-
brown and has a polished appearance.
This very quickly growing tree is quite common in Honolulu,
where large specimens can be seen on King Street in Thomas
Square, in the Government Nursery grounds and elsewhere. It de-
serves to be planted more commonly than heretofore owing to its
quick growth and its value as a shade tree.
It is a native of Jamaica and Venezuela whence it was intro-
duced into many tropical countries.
The bark of this tree contains tannin and the wood is used for
building or construction purposes.
Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Opiuma (Hawaiian name). Manila Tamarind.
The Opiuma, as the Hawaiians call the tree, is of medium height
with a rather short trunk. The ultimate branches of the tree are
pendulous and are armed with short, sharp spines ; the leaves are
two-pinnate — that is, each pinna consists of a single pair of leaflets ;
the flowers are white in dense globose heads and arranged along the
slender branchlets; the dehiscent pod is twisted, often spiral, the
valves turning red when ripe; it contains six to eight seeds which
are surrounded by a whitish, sweet, edible pulp. The pods which
ripen from April to June are good fodder for animals.
This tree yields a transparent gum of a polished appearance and
a deep reddish brown color. This gum is soluble in water and
forms a brownish mucilage. The seeds yield a fatty oil as thick
as that of the castor bean, but its properties have not been determined.
The sap wood is small, the heart wood is reddish brown and smells
very unpleasant when freshly cut and is of little value ; it is used
for crates and packing boxes, and is also grown for fuel. It makes
a good avenue tree, and is also suitable as a hedge plant. The bark
contains about 25% of tannin and is one of the principal sources of
that material in Mexico.
Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Opiuma, flowering and fruiting branch.
The Opiuma is a native of Central America and Mexico, whence
it was introduced into the Islands many years ago.
The name Pithecolobium is derived from the Greek "monkey"
and "pod" but has nothing to do with the tree known by the name
Monkey-pod in Honolulu. The tree is now cultivated in other tropi-
cal countries, especially in India.
Samanea saman (Benth.) Merrill
Monkey-pod or Rain-Tree.
The Monkey-pod is a large tree reaching a height sixty to seventy-
five feet, with wide-spreading branches. The leaves are evenly two-
pinnate, pinnae eight to twelve, with twelve to sixteen leaflets in
the upper, and six to ten in the lower, pinnae decreasing in size
downward and are from three-fourths to one and three-fourths of
an inch long. The flowers are pink and arranged in dense, peduncled,
axillary heads. The pod is straight, somewhat fleshy and indehiscent.
The mesocarp is pulpy and sweet. This species was formerly known
as Pithecolobium saman but it has not the dehiscent twisted pod
ascribed to this genus. Mr. E. D. Merrill, Government Botanist of
the Bureau of Science in Manila, P. I., has thought best to establish
a new genus for it adopting the section name Samanea under which
it was listed in the former genus. The Monkey-pod yields a yellow
gum of poor quality. The gum occurs in irregular drops and vermic-
ular pieces, is soft and tough, and swells in water into a tough carti-
laginous mass, which turns from a deep reddish brown color to black.
The sapwood is white, while the heartwood is brown, rather soft and
perishable; it weighs about twenty-six pounds per cubic foot. It is
a native of the West Indies and Central America, but is now
cultivated in most tropical countries. It is grown from seed. The
Monkey-pod or Rain-Tree is a rapid grower, especially under irri-
gation. Its name Rain-Tree is probably derived from the falling
liquid excreta of cicadeae insects which inhabit the trees in Central
America. The name Monkey-pod is simply a translation of the old
generic name Pithecolobium.
It is one of the finest shade trees and is on that account well
adapted for street-planting, where shade is required. It is most ex-
tensively planted in the Islands ; fine specimens may be seen on Puna-
hou Street, at Moanalua Gardens, and elsewhere ; some with a spread
of over a hundred feet.
It is one of those trees in which the leaflets are possessed of the
power of movement and close together at sundown, thus shedding
the dew. When the sun is high the leaflets spread out and screen off
the powerful rays of the sun. It is a valuable tree for crop protection
as it prevents excessive evaporation from the soil.
Albizzia Lebbek (L.) Benth.
The Siris Tree.
The Siris Tree is large, deciduous, and spreading. It is culti-
vated here and there in parks and along streets about Honolulu. The
Siris Tree is a native of tropical Africa and Asia ; it grows in the
evergreen mixed forests in the lower Himalayas from the Indus to
Bengal, Burmah, as well as in Central and South India, and often
ascends to an elevation of five thousand feet. As the tree is decidu-
ous and remains for a long time bare, save for the broad yellow papery
pods which hang in great numbers and do not improve the appear-
ance of the tree, it cannot be called ornamental ; besides, its flowers
are more or less inconspicuous, being of a greenish yellow color but
are exceedingly fragrant. Even in the spring when the leaves appear,
the pods, which are over half a foot long and an inch and a half
wide, and straw colored, still remain.
It has been employed in India as an avenue tree, as its roots do
not penetrate very deeply into the ground. It is grown from seeds
but may also be easily propagated from cuttings. There are. however,
much more desirable trees for avenue plantings which shed their
leaves either not at all or at most for a very short period and be-
sides have beautiful large showy flowers.
The Siris Tree yields a gum which is not soluble in water but
is jelly-like and resembles gum arable, and is often used as an adult-
erant for pure gum. The bark is used for tanning, while an oil ex-
tracted from the seeds is considered useful in leprosy. The seeds
and leaves are employed medicinally in ophthalmia, and the flowers
are used by the natives of India as a cooling medicine, being applied
externally on boils and eruptions. Powdered seeds have been ad-
ministered successfully in scrofulous enlargements of the glands, and
powdered root-bark is used when the gums are ulcerated and spongy.
The Siris Tree is a rapid grower and is content with almost any
kind of soil. It flourishes best, however, on embankments and road-
sides. Large trees can be found in Honolulu, one at Pawaa Junction
Albizzia Lebbek (L.) Benth.
A large Siris Tree in Moanalua Gardens.
on King Street and others at Moanalua, while smaller ones are scat-
tered all over town.
It has a large sapwood which is white, while the heartwood is
dark brown, hard and somewhat mottled. It seasons well, is worked
easily and takes a good polish. It is extensively used for various
purposes, even for buildings, furniture, etc. In Northern India it is
considered unlucky to use the wood in house-building.
Albizzia saponaria (Lour.) Bl.
Albizzia saponaria is a small tree attaining a height of thirty to
forty feet. The leaves are twelve to sixteen inches long, and consist
of four pinnae, the upper of which are longer than the lower and
are composed of four to eight ovate leaflets, gradually becoming
larger tow T ards the end of the pinnae. The flowering panicles are
terminal, pubescent and spreading. The flowers are white, crowded
in heads at the ends of the branchlets. The pod is thin, flat, up to
seven inches in length and little over an inch wide containing seven
to twelve seeds.
It is a native of the Philippines, distributed over Malay and grows
in the open forests. In Honolulu only a few specimens occur. The
most accessible is in the Queen's Hospital grounds. The sapw T ood
is of a creamy white, the heartwood dark brown to almost black.
It is moderately hard and heavy and is used for general house con-
struction in the Philippine Islands, also for furniture and fine in-
terior finish in the southern islands.
Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.
The Blacktcood, which has been in cultivation in our Territory,
belongs more to the higher levels rather than to Honolulu, though a
few trees can be found on residential grounds on Nuuanu Avenue;
it is planted mainly on Tantalus and on other higher situated locali-
ties throughout the Territory and does not really come within the
scope of this work. It resembles the Hawaiian Koa (Acacia Koa)
greatly, though it does not reach such handsome proportions. The
phyllods, or false leaves, which are really dilated leaf stalks, are not
as graceful as those of the Koa; they are not curved but more or
less straight and give the tree a rather stiff appearance. Mention
may also be made here of the various wattles, as Acacia decurrens
Albizzia saponaria (Lour.) Bl.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
and A. dealbata with which the Blackwood is usually planted on the
drier slopes of our mountains. It is called the Blackwood on account
of the dark color of the heartwood. The specific name melanoxylon
is from the Greek and means Black-wood.
It is a native of Tasmania and Australia, and is considered one
of the most valuable timber trees of that country.
Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.
Kiawe, Algarroba, Algaroba.
The Algaroba is by far the most common as well as the most
valuable of all the introduced trees in the Hawaiian Islands. No
tree so far introduced has proved of such enormous benefit to these
Islands as the Algaroba. Nevertheless the exact identity of this valu-
able tree has as yet not been definitely determined. It seems to be
a very variable species, not only in these Islands, where specimens
occur bristling with spines and then again others without a thorn,
but also in its native home, which by the way, seems to include the
West Indies, the southern United States, Central America, and even
portions of South America, as for example, Brazil and Peru. In the
"Flora Brasiliensis" of Martius, a monumental work, Prosopis dulcis
is looked upon as a synonym of Prosopis juliflora', and is recorded
from Brazil as a large tree.
It has been stated to be also identical with a species occurring in
Texas and New Mexico, which has, however, been recorded lately
by E. O. Wooton and P. C. Stanley in their "Flora of New Mexico"
(1915, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. V. 19), as Prosopis glandulosa
Torr. (the Mesquite). Its range is given as Arizona and New
Mexico to Oklahoma and Texas. The legume is described as inde-
hiscent, slightly compressed, straight or falcate. The height of the
plant is given as 3 meters (about 12 feet).
In order to avoid confusion, the writer adhers to the name
Prosopis juliflora for the tree found in Hawaii, which in all prob-
ability is identical with the plant known by that name elsewhere, as
for example, in Brazil. All the waste lands in these Islands, which
previous to the introduction of this valuable tree were absolutely
barren, are now covered with green forests made up exclusively
of this tree. It grows exceptionally well on the lee sides, and for
miles there exist now almost impenetrable jungles, which not only
supply excellent firewood, but furnish flowers with the best of nectar
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Algaroba Trees, Prosopsis jul iflora (Sw.) DC. on the Punahou Campusi
for honey-making. The pods, in addition, are eaten by all kinds of
grazing animals, and so great has been the demand for pods as fodder
that there was formed in Hawaii the Algaroba Feed Co., and
machinery was invented to macerate the pod. It can safely be said
that the Algaroba is now indispensable in Hawaii, and that it is one
of the greatest blessings that were bestowed on this Territory. The
history of the introduction of this valuable tree was published by
Father Reginald Yzendoorn of the Catholic Mission, in 1911, and
for a detailed account the writer wishes to refer anyone interested,
to Father Reginald's paper in the Eighteenth Annual Report of the
Hawaiian Historical Society. The progenitor of all the Hawaiian
Algarobas is still alive and can be seen on the premises of the Catho-
lic Mission on Fort Street. The inscription reads: "First Algaroba
Tree of the Hawaiian Islands, imported and planted in 1837 by
Father Bachelot, founder of the Catholic Mission. Later evidences
unearthed by Father Reginald, however, seem to prove that the tree
was not planted in 1837, but earlier. For the following quotations
and remarks the writer is greatly indebted to Father Reginald, who,
in a letter, says (he refers first to his article and then continues):
"I may add to this article two quotations from the journal of
Brother Melchior, who remained here during the exile of the priests
in California. I had not seen that diary when I wrote the above-
" 'January 12, 1832. — The old chief ess passed by our house to
go and see the governess ; she sent her husband to ask me for some
branches of our tree at the end of the yard'.
" 'August 15, 1832. — The tree at the end of the yard bears fruit.
Mr. Pablo (a Spaniard then living at the Mission) calls it in
Spanish "Algarroba." He knows it; the fruit is principally eaten in
times of famine. They grow in the provinces of Malaga and Valence,
but this one is of a more delicate and less sweet species'."*
Father Reginald concludes : "These quotations show that the
legend of the picture ( an illustration published with Father Regi-
nald's article. — The author.), saying that the tree was planted in
1828 is true, as four years later it bore pods, evidently for the first
time. Notice also the interest the natives were taking in the tree,
and how they tried to propagate it by planting cuttings, naturally, as
they had no seeds as yet."
* The writer would say that Mr. Pablo evidently had the St. John's Bread, Cera-
tonia siliqua, in mind, and when he says "more delicate" he evidently referred to the
less robust habit and much finer leaves. The pods of St. John's Bread are very sweet
and quite palatable.
Saraca indica Linn.
Sorrowiess Tree of India. Flowering branches.
In the illustration published and herein referred to by Father
Reginald, it is stated that the tree was introduced by Father Bache-
lot in 1828, the seed having come from the Royal Gardens of Paris,
France. Ceratonia siliqua, the St. John's Bread, is cultivated o:i
Adenanthera pavonina L.
Red Wood, Red Sandalwood, False Wiliwili.
This so-called Wilhvili is a small tree reaching a height of from
fifteen to twenty-five feet and is bare for a short time during the
3'ear. Its leaves are bi-pinnate with six to ten pairs of leaflets to each
pinna, the former are ovate or oblong-elliptical, and glabrous ; the
flowers are borne in short racemes and are yellowish in color. The
legume or pod is from four to twelve inches long, brown outside,
golden yellow inside, linear, compressed and incurved ; the seeds
are scarlet, round and compressed.
The leaves as well as the seeds are employed medicinally. Of the
former a decoction is used as a remedy for chronic rheumatism and
gout. The latter are more often used as an article of food and as
weights, each seed weighing about four grains.
It is a very common tree in and about Honolulu but cannot be
considered as ornamental save for the red seeds which are sold in
Honolulu curio stores as wiliwili necklaces.
The wood is hard, close grained, the heartwood red, durable and
strong. In India a dye is prepared from the wood of this tree but
its chief use is as a substitute for the real red sandalwood. The tim-
ber is used for housebuilding and cabinet making in India where the
tree grows to a considerable size.
It is often confounded with the true red Sandalwood (Ptero-
carpus Santalinus) which yields the red sandalwood of commerce.
Both species, however, have really nothing in common with the fra-
It is a native of India and Burmah, but has been in cultivation in
many tropical countries.
Saraca indica L.
ASOKA OR SORROW-LESS TREE OF INDIA.
This rather small tree is a native of Central and Eastern Hima-
laya, Bengal, South India and occurs in Kumaon in which latter place
Trachylobium verrucosum Lam.
Copal Tree. Fruiting specimen.
it grows to an elevation of two thousand feet. It is now distributed
all over India and is cultivated in many tropical countries but is
indigenous in Eastern Bengal. It is an exceedingly handsome object
when in full blossom and reminds one somewhat of the Ixora. The
flowers are of a coral-red and arranged in large globose heads in
the axils as well as at the ends of the branches; the leaves have
almost no leaf-stalk, are leathery, oblong in outline and entire.
The bark of this tree is much used by the natives of India for
medicinal purposes, as it contains a large proportion of gallic acid.
The Asoka is one of the most sacred trees of the Hindus, who are
ordered to worship it on a certain day in the year. The flowers,
which are quite aromatic, are much used in temple decoration. The
tree stands for the symbol of love and is dedicated to the Indian
God of Love. The Asoka is also held sacred by the Burmese, who
believe that Buddha was born under its shade. The word Asoka
signifies "that which is deprived of grief," hence the name Sorrow-
The wood of the Asoka is rather soft and of a light reddish
brown color, the heartwood is, however, hard and dark colored.
There seem to be only two or three trees of this species growing
in Honolulu ; it is in flower nearly all the year round and can be
seen in the grounds of the Government Nursery facing King Street,
and in private grounds on Nuuanu Street.
Trachylobium verracosum Lam.
The Copal is a small unarmed tree with terete branches. The
leaves are short-petioled, consisting of a single pair of oblique, oblong,
rigid-leathery leaves, two to three inches long. The flowers are
borne in ample corymbose panicles, the lower branches of which
spring often from the axils of the leaves. The calyx is short, the
segments oblong and tomentose. The petals are white, the three
upper often exserted from the calyx. The pod is oblong, thick, warty
and two inches long. This species, which is represented in Honolulu
by very few specimens, perhaps by a single one only, is a native of
Madagascar, tropical Africa, Mauritius, and the Seychelle Islands.
It is often cultivated, but only for its gum-copal, a hard trans-
parent substance resembling amber, a natural exudation of this tree.
The gum is yielded by the living trees, but the commercial sub-
Tamarindus indica L.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
stance is derived mainly from fossil copal, which occurs in large
quantities buried in the sand, chiefly near the coasts, away from any
A good specimen occurs in the grounds of the Board of Agri-
culture and Forestry on King Street.
Tamarindus indica L.
The Tamarind Tree.
The Tamarind is a large evergreen tree which often reaches a
height of eighty feet and a circumference of twenty-five feet. No
trees of such size occur in Honolulu. Its origin is somewhat doubt-
ful, but it is probably a native of tropical Africa. It is a very com-
mon tree about Honolulu where it has been in cultivation for a long
time. In India the tree is extremely common and is frequently planted
in avenues. Its beautiful foliage makes it quite an attractive tree.
Its pods contain seeds which are surrounded by an acid pulp of
pleasant flavor, making a delicious cooling drink when mixed with
water. The leaves have twenty to forty oblong leaflets. The flowers
are borne in lax terminal racemes, the petals are five in number, only
three of which are developed, and are yellow with red stripes, while
the two lower ones are reduced to scales.
The leaves, flowers, and fruits contain a quantity of acid
and are employed as a dye in conjunction with other dye-producing
flowers. From the seed is expressed an oil of beautiful amber color
which is odorless and sweet to taste, and has been advocated for culi-
nary purposes as well as for the preparation of varnishes and paints.
Knowledge of the value of the Tamarind as a medicinal plant
dates back into a remote period in Sanskrit medicine and has become
known through the Hindus to the Arabians, who in turn through
their writings made it known to the Europeans in the middle ages.
The name Tamarind is derived from the Arabian Tamare-Hindi,
which means "Indian date," the Arabians thus adopting for it the
name of their own finest fruit. In the early periods it was thought
that the fruit was derived from a wild Indian palm. It was first
accurately described in the sixteenth century.
The fruit is an excellent purgative and was known in Europe
from the middle ages, enjoying a reputation for all the virtues which
were ascribed to it by the Arabs and Persians, and to this day it is
used India for all purposes for which it was employed in those ancient
Bauhinia tomentosa L.
Flowering and fruiting branch.
The fruit is officially recognized in Europe and America as a
valuable laxative and as a refrigerant in fever. As food it is used
in curries and chutneys of which it is a pleasing ingredient. Still
another use is made of the seeds, which after having been pulverized
are boiled with thin glue into a paste, and form an exceedingly strong
wood-cement, perhaps one of the strongest known.
The wood is yellowish white, hard and rather close-grained ;
the heartwood is comparatively small and dark purplish brown in
color. It is highly prized but very difficult to work, and is employed
in India for wheels, mallets, furniture, etc.
The Tamarind is easily propagated from seed and forms an ex-
cellent shade tree for roadsides, especially well adapted to dry lo-
Bauhinia tomentcsa L.
This species is an erect, branching shrub, ten to fifteen feet in
height ; the branchlets, lower surfaces of the leaves and the pods are
somewhat velvety tomentose. The leaves are about as wide as they
are long and are split one-third to the base into two ovate rounded
lobes. The flowers are pale lemon yellow, usually in pairs or single
on axillary pedicels. The pod is about four inches long, half an inch
wide, flattened, pointed, and contains six to ten seeds.
This Bauhinia is a native of India, especially common in the
northwest Provinces and extending throughout India to China, Cey-
lon and tropical Africa.
It is usually cultivated for ornamental purposes and flowers most
of the year. In Honolulu it is occasionally met with, but has not
been planted as commonly as Bauhinia monandra; plants may be
found in Kapiolani Park and on the corner of Punahou Street and
Wilder Avenue, opposite the Pleasanton Hotel.
The wood is tough and close-grained, but when full-grown it is
very soft. As a medicine the plant is antidysenteric and useful in
liver complaints. A decoction of the root-bark is useful in inflam-
mation of the liver, while the dried buds and young flowers are pre-
scribed in dysenteric affections. From the bark the natives of India
prepare a durable fibre.
Bauhinia monandra Kurz.
St. Thomas Tree.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
Bauhinia monandra Kurz.
St. Thomas Tree.
This Bauhinia is a small or medium-sized tree with long, spread-
ing branches. The leaves are from four to five inches, both in length
and width, and cleft about half way to the base, the lobes are roun-
ded, the base is cordate. The racemes are few-flowered and axillary.
The corolla is about four inches in diameter, the petals are spread-
ing, narrowly obovate, long-clawed, pink-purple with numerous
darker dots, the upper petal is much darker than the others. It has
only one single stamen, hence the specific name. The pod is stout,
thick, about eight inches long and one inch wide.
It is probably a native of tropical America, but is now culti-
vated for ornamental purposes in many tropical countries. In Hono-
lulu it is commonly met with in parks and private grounds.
Cassia siamea Lamk.
(Syn. Cassia florida Vahl.)
The Kassod Tree is of rather low stature with twiggy branch-
lets which are covered with a fine gray down. The leaves are one-
half to one foot long, and the leaflets are oblong, of a bluish hue
very strongly veined, distinctly stalked and two to three inches long.
The bright yellow flowers, which are not veined, are borne on one-
half to one foot-long panicles both axillary and terminal. The pod
is almost straight, flat, distinctly stalked, six to nine inches long, and
one-half inch wide, and of firm texture.
It is a native of South India, Burmah, Ceylon, and is also dis-
tributed over the Malayan Peninsula and Siam. As already stated,
it is a moderate-sized tree, with smooth bark. The sapwood is
whitish and rather large, the heartwood brown or almost black,
rather hard and durable.
In Burmah the wood is employed for mallets and walking-sticks,
while in India, especially South India, little is known of it, but is
considered a fine fuel in Ceylon.
In Honolulu the tree has been more or less extensively planted
in private grounds especially along King and Beretania streets, where
it can be easily recognized by its long terminal as well as axillary
Cassia siamea Lam.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
panicles of yellow flowers. The exact date of introduction into this
Territory is not known to the writer, but dates back evidently to
the time of Dr. W. Hillebrand in the early seventies. It flowers in
late summer and the early part of autumn when all of our other
showy leguminous trees have laid down their bright colored robes.
Cassia alata Linn.
ACAPULCO OR APULCO.
Cassia alata is a small, short-lived shrub, with thick, downy
branches, the equally pinnate leaves are from one and a half to
two feet long ; the leaflets, of which there are sixteen to twenty-
eight per leaf, are oblong, have a broad apex and increase in size
upward. The inflorescence is terminal, spike-like often a foot and
a half long and bears large yellow flowers. The pods are straight,
and have a papery wing running from end to end, hence the name
The bark is useful as tanning material in India. The leaves,
which enjoy a medicinal reputation among the natives of India, who
employ them as a local application in skin diseases, are said to cure
all poisonous bites, as well as ringworm, when crushed and applied
It is a native of tropical America but is now widely distributed.
In Honolulu it is not plentiful but can be met with in gardens
where it is planted as an ornamental shrub.
Cassia glauca Lam. A native of South-eastern Asia, is a small
tree very commonly planted and even naturalized in and about Hono-
lulu and probably in other parts of the Territory. It has yellow
flowers borne in corymbs and thin papery pods which open on one
side. The bark is said to be of medicinal value in diabetes when
given mixed with water and sugar.
Cassia laevigata Willd., also of early introduction, resembles
Cassia glauca but is a shrub and differs from the latter in the pods
which are round instead of flat, with the seeds arranged horizontally
in septae or divisions. It is especially common in Xuuanu and Pauoa
Valley, where it grows profusely over fences along water courses.
The natives call it Kalomona.
Cassia fistula Linn.
Cassia fistula L.
Golden Shower, The Indian Laburnum, Purging Cassia.
The Golden Shower is a very handsome, moderate-sized tree
which becomes bare during the winter months, and brings forth, dur-
ing the early summer or late spring, long racemes of golden yellow
flowers, which are followed in the fall by long, cylindrical, woody
pods twenty to thirty inches in length.
The Golden S.hower is a native of India and Ceylon, growing
wild in the sub-Himalayan tracts, from the Kashia hills to Peshawar
in the northwest frontier Province, and extends through Central
India. It hardly grows taller than twenty feet and has rather droop-
ing branches. It is suitable to rather dry regions, but thrives also
in moist districts ; in its native home it ascends to an elevation of
three thousand feet.
The trunk of this tree exudes a reddish juice which solidifies and
becomes gummy. The bark is used in tanning ; a red dye is also
extracted from it.
The root, bark, and the pulp of the fruit are employed medi-
cinally, especially the latter, which is a simple purgative. It is quite
safe and may be given to children. The bark and leaves are also
valued, and are used externally in skin diseases, especially in ring-
The flowers, which are exceedingly showy, are used in temple
ceremonies in Ceylon.
The wood of the Golden Shower varies from a gray or yellowish
red to brick red. The heartwood is quite hard, and of small diameter,
and makes excellent posts, while the sapwood is very large. The
wood is considered quite durable, but owing to the small size of
the trees cannot be used for timber.
In Honolulu the Golden Shower is planted gregariously on ac-
count of its fine drooping racemes of yellow flowers. Certain streets
have been planted with Golden Shower only, such as Pensacola
Street, while others have been planted with its rivals, the Pink
Shower, Cassia nodosa, and Delonix regia, the flame tree of Mada-
Cassia grandis Linn.
Pink Shower or Horse Cassia.
The American Pink Shower grows to a height of fifty feet or
more and is an elegant tree with more or less ascending branches.
Cassia nodosa Ham.
Pink and White Shower.
Its pinnate leaves are eight inches in length, alternate, and have
from ten to fifteen pairs of oblong leaflets which are covered with
fine soft hair of a copper color, similar to the young branchlets. The
flowers are borne in abundant racemes which are shorter than the
leaves. The flower, flowerstalk, and calyx are clothed with a grayish
pubescence. The corolla is deep pink, about an inch in expansion.
The pod is larger than that of any other cultivated Cassia in Hono-
lulu, being a foot and a half in length and an inch or more thick.
It is rough, woody and has two prominent ridges on one side. The
pulp has an offensive odor.
Like Cassia nodosa, it is an exceedingly handsome species and
flowers during the months of February and March and is practicallv
out of flower in the early part of April ; it is deciduous or partly so
while in flower.
It is a native of South America but occurs also on the islands of
the Carribean Sea. On account of its beautiful inflorescence it has
been cultivated in many tropical countries and is well established
Cassia nodosa Ham.
Pixk and White Shower.
Cassia nodosa, formerly known as Gathartocarpus, is a tree of
moderate size, with long drooping branches which are slightly downy;
the leaves are a foot or more long and are composed of twelve to
twenty-four moderately large, oblong, distinctly stalked leaflets two
to four inches in length, and are oblique at the base, glossy and dis-
tinctly veined. The flowering racemes are short, corymbose and
are produced from the old branches, are dense, and under half a foot
long. The flowers are of a beautiful rose pink or whitish pink, with
yellow stamens, the pedicels are twice as long as the flowers. The
pod when mature is about a foot long and a half an inch thick.
This magnificent flowering tree is one of the most commonly
cultivated ornamental plants in Honolulu, where it has been much
used for street planting. During the months of May and June it
bears a profusion of bright pink rose-scented flowers and is an object
of great beauty. The flowers are followed by cylindrical pods and
the tree finally becomes bare during the winter months.
It is a native of India and ranges from the Eastern Himalaya
to the Malay Isles and the Philippines. In Hawaii the tree is never
Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf.
Poinciana regia, flowering specimen with pod.
very tall, but in Java the writer has seen specimens over fifty feet
A closely allied species, if indeed at all distinct from the above,
is Cassia Javanica, recorded by Hillebrand as cultivated in Hono-
lulu. It is supposed to differ from the former by its smaller and
more obtuse leaflets; the inflorescence is the same.
Haematoxylum campechiarmm Linn.
Logwood or Bloodwood Tree.
The Bloodivood Tree reaches a height of thirty to forty-five feet,
but has a short trunk rarely attaining a height of six or nine feet,
growing very irregular and continuing into large straight branches.
The leaves are abruptly pinnate with three to four pairs of small
obovate obtuse leaflets which are rigid-veined. The fragrant flowers
are copious, in dense axillary racemes, petals bright yellow, with
ten free stamens at the base. The pod is flat, membranous, and nar-
rowed at both ends.
The tree is rather handsome when in flower. It is a native of
Central America and the West Indies, but is cultivated in many
tropical countries. In Honolulu only a few trees can be found, as
on Wilder Avenue and in the Government Nursery grounds on
The wood is very hard and heavy, compact in texture, dark
purple in color, with darker stripes, occasionally marked with orange,
especially towards the sapwood. It is chiefly employed in the pro-
duction of dye, but is also used by woodturners.
Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf.
PoiXCIAXA REGIA. FLAME TREE, FLAMBOYANT.
The Poinciana regia, whose proper name is Delonix regia, is a
deciduous, rapidly growing tree with a flat crown, though reaching
a height of sixty feet or more; the leaves which are gracefully bi-
pinnate have ten to twenty pairs of pinnae, each pinna with many
small oval leaflets. The flowers are arranged in terminal racemes,
and are extremely showy, being bright scarlet or red and yellow and
quite large. The upper petal is usually striped with yellow, while
the four lower are all red. The pod is flat, strap-shaped, somewhat
curved, and about twenty-four inches long and two inches wide.
The Poinciana is a native of Madagascar and is one of the
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) S\v.
Flowering and fruiting specimens of Pride of Barbados.
handsomest flowering trees. It has been introduced into many tropi-
cal countries, and has been in these islands since about 1855, when
it was introduced probably by Dr. Hillebrand. It has been planted
in avenues of late and will soon make a fine showing. Its spring and
summer attire of beautiful green graceful foliage and large scarlet
blossoms, makes up for its bareness during the winter, when the
tree is really ungainly.
The wood of the Poinciana regia is white to light yellowish in
color, loose-grained, and takes a fine polish.
The tree yields a yellowish or reddish brown gum containing
oxalate of lime. When placed in water this gum does not dissolve
but forms an opalescent mucilage.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Lw.
Pride of Barbados.
The Pride of Barbados is a small, erect, somewhat spiny bush,
or occasionally a small tree reaching a height of from four to twenty
feet, but rarely more. Its flowers are borne in terminal racemes, and
are either yellow or red and yellow. It is a native of tropical Ameri-
ca, but has been in cultivation in nearly all tropical countries and
has even become naturalized in these islands. It is usually planted
as a hedge or scattered bushes. It can be seen nearly all over town
in various gardens and especially at Kapiolani Park, Waikiki. It
deserves to be cultivated, but has been rather neglected in Hono-
lulu where it has sprung up of its own accord in waste places. Its
showy flowers make it quite attractive, especially as it remains in
flower all the year round.
The leaves as well as the flowers and seeds have been employed
medicinally ; the former are said to be purgative.
In India the shrub is sacred to the God Shiva. The natives of
India make ink from the charred wood.
Caesalpinia coriaria Willd.
American Sumach or Divi-divi.
Plate XLVI I.
The Divi-divi is a small tree with finely bi-pinnate foliage of a
dark green color. The leaflets number sixteen to twenty-four pairs,
are oblong linear and blunt. The flowers are white and arranged
Plate XL VII.
Caesalpinia coriaria Willd.
Divi-divi, fruiting branch.
in contracted compound racemes. The legume or pod is one and a
half to two inches long, laterally incurved, flatly compressed, some-
what convex on the outer, concave on the inner side and six to eight
The sinuous pods of the Dwi-divi contain a large quantity of a
very powerful and quickly acting tanning material which is very
valuable. The tree is cultivated in India and other tropical coun-
tries mainly for its seeds, but in Honolulu only a few specimens
are extant. Here it is mainly grown as a curiosity, rather than for
either beauty or usefulness. One tree may be found in the Govern-
ment Nursery grounds on King Street and another in the courtyard
at Hilo, Hawaii. The pods have still another use; a powder is pre-
pared which is of a light yellow color and astringent to taste ; it is
used as an antiperiodic in cases of intermittent fever, and as such
it has been tried with excellent results in India.
The Dwi-divi is a native of South America and the West Indies,
found mainly in marsh)- situations in New Granada, Mexico, Nor-
thern Brazil and Jamaica.
Caesalpinia sappan Linn.
Caesalpinia sappan Linn. The Sappan Wood is a small thorny
tree reaching a height of fifteen feet with leaves a foot and a half
long composed of about twenty opposite pinnae with twenty to
thirty leaflets, which are oblong-rhomboid, oblique, and are attached
at the lower corner. The flowering panicles are often as long as
the leaves and are terminal. The flowers are an inch in diameter
and yellow; the pods oblong to oblong obovate, hard, shining, about
three inches long and one and a half wide, with a hard recurved beak
at the upper angle.
The Sappan Wood yields a valuable red dye which is, however,
also prepared from the pods and bark, while the root is supposed to
afford a yellow dye.
Sappan Wood is mostly used in calico-printing, it is steeped in
water and yields a red dye. It is, however, not permanent. The
wood, though chiefly used as a dye, is said to be a useful astringent,
containing tannic and gallic acids; it is given internally in decoction
and is useful in certain forms of skin diseases. The natives of
India use it also as a blood purifier. It is a native of Malay and
India but is not a common tree in Honolulu whither it was intro-
duced in the earlv sixties.
Peltophorum inerme (Roxb.) Naves
Yellow Poinciana, flowering and fruiting branch.
Peltophorum inerme (Roxb.) Naves
( Syn. Peltophorum ferrugineum Benth.)
1 he so-called Yellow Poinciana is usually a tree twenty-five to
fifty feet or even more in height, possessing a dense crown of spread-
ing branches with the younger parts and flowering panicles brown-
tomentose. The leaves are eight to sixteen inches long with ten to
fifteen pairs of opposite pinnae, these again with ten to fifteen pairs
of oblong leaflets. The calyx is brown tomentose, the corolla yellow ;
the pods are oblong, two and a half to three and a half inches long,
longitudinally veined and contain from one to four seeds.
This handsome shade tree which flowers during the summer
months and the early fall is a native of Ceylon, Malaya and extends
to Northern Australia. It is commonly cultivated in tropical coun-
tries on account of its symmetrical crown and handsome large yellow
flowering panicles. When in fruit it is also conspicuous by its red-
dish pods, which become dark brown when mature. It is extensively
cultivated in Honolulu, being planted in avenues, especially in
Manoa Valley, while it can also be found in nearly even - yard in
Honolulu. It is particularly well suited to dry districts and often
flowers twice a year at irregular seasons, but usuallv only in the
Castanospermum australe A. Cunn.
The Black Beax, Moretox Bay Chestxut.
1 he name Castanospermum is derived from the Latin Castanea=
Chestnut, and spermum=seed. It is a tall glabrous tree with leaves
one and a half feet long which are unequally pinnate, possessing
eleven to fifteen ovate to broadly-oblong leaflets. The flowers,
borne in racemes, are fleshy and resemble pea blossoms. They van-
in color from yellow to orange and coral red, and are quite hand-
some. The pod is eight to nine inches long, about two broad, and
almost round ; the valves are thick and hard and contain three to
five large chestnut-like seeds which are eaten by the natives of Aus-
tralia to which country the tree is peculiar.
The native prepares the seeds for food by first steeping them in
water for eight to ten days, after which the seeds are dried in the
sun, roasted upon hot stones and pounded into a meal.
The seeds when eaten act as a strong laxative whether pre-
viously soaked or roasted. Owing to their highly indigestible char-
acter, the beans kill stock, the indigestible portion forming lumps in
the stomach, on account of which the stock owners of Australia have
waged war against this tree.
The wood of the Black Bean resembles walnut, to which it is
scarcely inferior. It is often very beautiful in its markings and pol-
ishes readily, moreover, it is quite durable and will last any number
of years underground.
In its native habitat the tree often reaches a height of sixty to
seventy feet with a trunk of two to three feet in diameter. In Hono-
lulu the writer knows of only one tree, planted by Dr. W. Hille-
brand in his grounds on Nuuanu Avenue, where it flowers and fruits
every year. The tree can be propagated from seed, and as it is an
object of beauty should be freely planted.
Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.
The Sesban is rather a small tree, rarely attaining a height of
over twenty feet, and is not at all well established in Honolulu. It
is a short-lived tree with very soft wood, bearing large, edible, white
flowers and long sickle-shaped pods. The leaves are long and nar-
row, with twenty to forty pairs of oblong, pale green leaflets. It is
now in cultivation in many tropical countries and is distributed from
India to Mauritius, Malay and Australia. It yields a gum of a
garnet red color which becomes nearly black when exposed to the
air, and is very astringent. The bark, of which the inner portion
yields a good fibre, is also astringent and has been employed in in-
fusions in the first stages of small-pox and other eruptive fevers. In
India the juice of the leaves and flowers forms a popular remedy
for headache and nasal catarrh ; it is blown into the nostrils and
produces a copious discharge of fluid which relieves the painful pres-
sure. The same juice is also squeezed into the eye to cure dimness
of vision. The leaves and flowers as well as pods are eaten by the
poorer natives of India in curries and as a vegetable. They are
strongly laxative when taken too freely. A variety with red flowers
is also under cultivation but less common. It is known botanically
as var. cocci nea.
Sesbania sesban (L. ) Merrill, the Egyptian rattle pod, a cosmo-
politan of the tropics, is also met with in Honolulu and vicinity. It
has small yellowish purple flowers, and long, very thin, terete pods
which open and become spirally twisted when mature. It is a small
ungainly tree of no ornamental value whatever.
Pterocarpus indicus Willd.
The Andaman Redwood.
Narra (in the Philippines).
The Narra, or Andaman Redwood, is a large and lofty tree found
in Burmah, the Andaman Islands, Philippines, China, Malay, and
Polynesia. The leaves are three to six inches long, have seven to
eleven ovate leaflets which are bluntly pointed, and are arranged
alternately on the leaf rhachis. The flowering panicles are in the
axils of the leaves, are branching, and bear numerous yellow flowers.
The seed pod is circular in outline, short-beaked, flat, and of a papery
The sapwood of the Xarra is small, while the heartwood is dark
red, close-grained, moderately hard, quite durable and is not attacked
by white ants. As it seasons well, takes a fine polish, and is easily
worked, it is employed for furniture, carts, etc. In the Andaman
Islands it reaches an enormous size and is said to be the most useful
wood. In the Philippines it grows usually wild on the flat coastal
plains behind mangrove swamps and scattered along streams in the
low hills. It loves light and loses its leaves for a short time during
the year. The tree exudes a gum which has been used commercially
It was introduced into Honolulu and the Islands generally a few
decades ago. Good-sized trees may be found but not very many ; a
good specimen may be seen on the grounds of the Board of Agricul-
ture and Forestry. It reaches a height of seventy-five feet or more,
with an average diameter of one and a half to two feet.
Pongamia mitis (L.) Merrill
The Pongamia is a rather tall erect tree or occasionally climber
with glabrous branches and leaves. The leaflets are opposite, five to
seven in number, oblong or ovate, pointed and stalked, and two to
four inches long. The pale purplish flowers are half an inch long
and are arranged in simple peduncled axillary racemes, nearly the
length of the leaves. The pod is woody, glabrous, about a fourth of
an inch thick, one and a half to two inches long, with a short re-
It is a native of India, ranging from the Central and Eastern
Piscidia erythrina Linn
Fish Poison Tree.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
Himalaya to Ceylon, Malacca, North Australia, Polynesia and the
It is not very common in Honolulu but deserves to be cultivated
on account of its drooping branches and rather handsome flowers.
So far only a few mature trees can be found, the best ones in the
garden of Dr. Wm. Hillebrand, who introduced it into Hawaii
about hft_\" years or more ago.
It yields a thick, black opaque gum, but hardly of sufficient quan-
tity to be useful. From the seeds an oil is extracted in India which
is used for illuminating and for medicinal purposes; it is of a light
orange-brown color and bitter to the taste.
The bitter principle of the oil is not due to an alkaloid but is
apparently contained in a resin. The oil, which is known as Kur-
runje Oil, is described as a useful remedy in skin diseases and rheu-
matism, and is a remedial agent in cases of scabies and other cutan-
eous diseases. The wood is moderately hard and white, turning yellow
on exposure. The leaves make a fine manure for wet cultivation and
are effective in destroying blight.
Piscidia erythrina L.
Fish Poisox Tree.
Piscidia erythrina is the only species in the genus and is a tree
of medium size. The leaves are odd-pinnate and the oblong or ellip-
tical leaflets are opposite. The whitish flowers which have a purplish
tinge are small, six to eight lines long and arranged in short lateral
racemes. The pod is two to four inches long, compressed, and bears
along each margin two broad membraneous longitudinal wings. The
pod contains six to eight seeds which are oblong, black and sub-
In Honolulu the writer knows of several trees which adorn
Thomas Square Park, and are objects of beauty when in flower.
It is a native of the West Indies, Florida and Mexico.
The bark of Piscidia is used as a narcotic in stupefying fish.
Inocarpus edulis Forst.
The Ivi or Tahitiax Chestxut.
The Ivi bears a thick crown of oblong leathery leaves, and small
white flowers emitting a delicious perfume. The fruits are kidney-
shaped and contain a kernel resembling chestnuts in taste.
Erythrina indica Lam.
Flowering specimen of the Coral Tree or Tiger's Claw.
Leguminosae. 1 19
The Ivi is a very peculiar tree and its position in the natural
order of plants is doubtful and has puzzled the botanists consider-
ably. The flowers are not papilionaceous and the fruit is not a gen-
uine legume but a drupe. The coriaceous leaves are simple, another
fact which estranges this plant from the family Leguminosae.
There are a few trees of this species cultivated in Airs. Mary E.
It is a native of Fiji and other south Polynesian islands, ranging
to New Guinea and the Indian Archipelago, where it reaches a height
of sixty to eighty feet.
The seed is baked or boiled and eaten without further prepara-
tion, or grated is made into pudding or bread. The bark is astringent.
It is stated in the records of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural
Society that it was first planted by G. Wundenberg at Hanalei,
Kauai", in 1849.
Erythrina indica Lam.
Foreigx or Indian Wiliwili.
Tiger's Claw, Indian Coral Tree.
The Erythrina indica, the generic name being derived from the
Greek word red, alluding to the bright red flowers, is a deciduous
tree reaching a height of forty-five feet ; the branches and branchlets
are stout, and armed with many sharp prickles ; the leaflets, of which
there are three in a leaf, have a broad base and are nearly triangular
in outline ; the racemes are terminal and bear numerous large red
flowers before the appearance of any foliage. The pods are four to
eight inches long and contain several dark carmine colored seeds the
size of a bean. It is a moderate-sized, quickly growing tree, occurring
throughout India from the foot of the Himalayas into Burmah, but
now cultivated all over the tropics. In Honolulu numerous trees of
this species are grown in various gardens and in private grounds.
In India the red flowers are dried and after having been boiled
yield a red dye; the bark is also employed for dyeing and tanning
purposes, as well as yielding an excellent fibre of a pale straw color.
Medicinally the bark is used as a febrifuge and also as a collyrium
in opthalmia, while the juice of the leaves is considered a good ca-
thartic and is employed similarly to the bark in conjunctivitis.
The wood of the Indian Coral Tree, though open-grained and
very light, is durable and does not split or warp. It is used for
boxes, toys, trays, etc., and is also good for firewood. Much of the
lacquered-ware of the different parts of India is made of the wood of
As it is bare for several months during the year and as the
flowers and leaves are produced separately at different seasons, it
is not a choice tree for ornamental purposes unless it is desired rather
as an oddity.
A number of other species belonging to the genus Erythrina are
in cultivation in Honolulu. Mention may be made of the shrubby
species E. crista galli L. ; Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk. ) Merrill,
formerly known as E. lithosperma, and E. fusca Lour, of which a
single specimen occurs on Anapuni Street. There remain a few
other species which the writer has not as yet been able to determine,
owing to the large number of species in the genus, and the lack of
a proper monograph on this difficult group of plants.
Xo this family belongs Averrhoa carambola L., a native of tropi-
cal America and now cultivated for its greenish-yellow, fleshy, angu-
larly lobed fruit. Of the family Geraniaceae, the genus Pelargon-
ium (the geraniums of the gardeners) is represented by a few species.
Of the many members of this family those of the genus Citrus
are the most planted, but as they are not within the scope of this
work the writer refers anyone interested in them to G. P. Wilder's
book on the "Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands." Other genera worth
mentioning are Clausena and Aegle. The former is represented by
the Wampi, Clausena Wampi Oliv., a native of China, and the latter
by the Bhel or Bael fruit Aegle marmelos Correa, a native of East-
India. One of the ornamental species belonging to this family is the
Murraya exotica L.
The Alack Orange is a shrub or small tree ten to twenty feet in
height and glabrous throughout. The leaves are composed of usually
three to seven glossy leaflets. The flowering cymes are short and
few flowered. The flowers are white and very fragrant. The fruit
is ovoid, fleshy, of a red color and about half an inch long. It flowers
from July to September. It is a native of India and China and ex-
tends southward to Australia and Polynesia. In India it grows in
the outer Himalaya up to an elevation of 4500 feet, but is now cul-
tivated nearly all over the tropics for ornamental reasons. It is also
known as Satinwood. The wood is light yellow, close grained, and
exceedingly hard. It resembles boxwood, and has been similarly em-
ployed. Quite a number of these shrubs may be seen scattered all
over Honolulu in private premises as well as in parks.
Canarium Nut Family.
The only genus to be recorded as under cultivation in Hawaii is
Canarium of which Canarium commune L., the Canarium or Pili
Nut Tree, is the sole representative. It is a native of the Moluccas
and Java. It is a slow grower but lends itself wonderfully for avenue
or street planting, where durability and longivity rather than quick
shade are required. The finest avenue in the world is the Canarium
Avenue which leads into the famous botanic gardens at Buitenzorg in
Java. An avenue of this wonderful tree would indeed be an asset
The Santol Family is represented in Honolulu by several genera
which will be treated below. Mention must be made of a species
belonging to the genus Toona of which there is only a single tree
in Honolulu. It is the Toona febrifuga (Forst.) M. Roem. a
native of Java and India. The genus Toona and several of its
species are not recognized in Index Kewensis, and Toona febrifuga is
listed as a synonym of Cedrela Toona Roxb. which in fact is identi-
cal with Toona ciliata Roem. Toona febrifuga has entire pointed
leaflets, large racemes and large capsules covered with lenticels, while
Toona ciliat.a=( Cedrela Toona) has short racemes and small, smooth
It is a large tree fifty to sixty feet in height with long drooping
branches. The bark yields a resinous gum, and the flowers a red
and a yellow dye which is obtained by boiling the flowers. Medicin-
ally the bark is used as a mild febrifuge. The tree w x as introduced
by Dr. Hillebrand in whose residential grounds the original specimen
still flourishes, and bears fruits profusely. The fresh fruits have
a strong odor reminiscent of garlic.
Swietenia Mahcgani L.
The True Mahogany.
The True Mahogany is a large evergreen tree with abruptly pin-
nate, glabrous leaves consisting of six to ten leaflets, which are ovate-
lanceolate and pointed ; the woody capsule is dehiscent from the
base, ovoid in outline and three to four inches long; the seeds
have a terminal, oblong wing.
The Mahogany is a native of the West Indies extending to
Mexico, Honduras and Peru.
This tree furnishes the very valuable red mahogany wood of
commerce. The heartwood is reddish-brown, seasons well, and is
easily worked. It is used mainly for furniture but occasionally also
in ship-building. The tree yields a gum which is liquid at first but
dries up readily into white brittle fragments. In the West Indies
the bark is sometimes employed as a substitute for cinchona.
There are several mature trees in Honolulu, one which bears
fruit profusely on upper King Street, others on the grounds of Luna-
lilo Home. Lately Kalakaua Avenue has been planted with these
trees. A great many woods resembling the True Mahogany in color
have been termed Mahogany, as for example the wood of Acacia
Koa, the native koa which has reached the market as Hawaiian
Melia Azedarach L.
Pride of India or Persian Lilac.
The Pride of India reaches a height of over forty feet but has a
rather short trunk and broad crown. It is bare during a short
period of the year. Its leaves have three to four pinnae with three to
twelve ovate-lanceolate, deeply serrate or sometimes lobed leaflets.
The flowers are lilac with a strong scent of honey. The fruit is a
drupe, yellow when ripe and three-fourths of an inch long.
As the; name implies it is a native of India, and also of Burmah.
It is able to stand more cold than the Neem tree, growing at eleva-
tions of as much as 9,000 feet.
The leaves and flowers are used medicinally, a poultice prepared
of them is employed to relieve nervous headaches. In America where
the tree is considerably planted in the southern states a decoction
of the leaves has been used in hysteria, also externally against
leprosy. The fruit is considered poisonous. The natives of India
wear a necklace of them to avert contagion. The root bark of the
tree is used as an anthelmintic in the United States. It is bitter and
nauseous to the taste and gives up its properties to boiling water.
The sap wood is yellowish white, the heartwood red. and soft, it
is handsomely marked and takes a fine polish.
The tree has been planted in the Hawaiian Islands to a great
extent mainly in the uplands as on Maui, Hawaii and Kauai, on the
latter Island the birds have spread the drupes and thus the tree has
become naturalized and has spread considerably. In Honolulu the
tree can occasionally be met with, having been planted for ornamental
purposes. It is the China berry tree of the southern and western
States of the Union.
Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
Xeem or Nim Tree.
The Neem Tree is a large evergreen glabrous tree with hard
red heartwood. The leaves are alternate and odd pinnate with
seven to nine pairs of leaflets which are serrate, the odd leaflet
often wanting. The flowers are white, strongly honey-scented, and
arranged in axillary panicles which are shorter than the leaf. The
drupe is the size of an olive, first yellow but afterwards becoming
purple, it is one-celled and one-seeded.
The Xeem is a native of Burmah growing wild in dry regions
of the Irrawady Valley but is cultivated throughout India and else-
where in the tropics. It is one of the commonest trees planted in
India especially the northern and northwestern provinces where the
writer saw it extensively used along the Grand Trunk Road which
leads from Bengal to Peshawar. It is planted by the natives near
dwellings with the belief that its presence improves materially the
health of a community.
A gum which the tree exudes is esteemed as a stimulant. The
seeds, by boiling or pressure, yield a fixed acrid bitter oil of a deep
yellow color, which is employed medicinally as an anthelmintic and
antiseptic, and by the poorer classes of India for burning in lamps.
The natives of India cook the leaves with other vegetables in the
form of curry or eat them parched. They are also used to protect
cloth, paper and books from the ravages of insects. The tree is held
sacred by the Hindus who believe that by eating the leaves they
acquire freedom from disease.
Amoora grandifolia Walp.
In Honolulu the writer knows of only one large tree, with a
trunk of over two feet in diameter and large surface roots. It was
introduced and planted by Dr. W. Hillebrand on his premises.
Another specimen is in the grounds of Dr. R. W. Anderson on
the corner of Beretania and Keeaumoku Streets.
Amoora grandifolia Walp.
Amoora grandifolia Walp., a tall or medium sized tree with
large unequally pinnate leaves, is one of about twenty species be-
longing to the genus Amoora, the name Amoora having been derived
from the Bengali vernacular name Amur, applied to Amoora cucullata
Roxb., the type of the genus.
The species here discussed is little known. It is a native of
Malacca and supposed to be identical with Amoora A phanamixis
When in fruit the tree makes a fine showing, as the long drooping
racemes are usually loaded with the pink to rose-red, globose fruits,
which when open expose the brownish black, shining seeds, which are
partly enclosed by a bright red to orange colored arillus.
There are very few trees of this species in Honolulu. One
can be found in the Government Nursery grounds, others on Young
Street and in Mrs. Jaeger's premises respectively. It was probably
introduced by Mr. Jaeger, who was the first commissioner of
agriculture in these Islands.
Several species of trees belonging to various genera are sparingly
cultivated in Honolulu. Two of them, xllalpighia glabra L. and a
species of Bunchosia bear edible fruits.
Of ornamental value and also sparingly cultivated is a small
shrub with terminal panicles of bright yellow flowers and small,
glaucous leaves; it is the Galphimia glauca Cav. of the botanists and
is a native of tropical America. Specimens may be seen in the late
Gov. Cleghorn's residential grounds and at Mrs. M. E. Foster's
Acalypha Wilkesiana Muell.-Arg.
The pendulous spikes bear the staminate, the shorter terminal
the pistillate flowers.
The Euphorbiaceae have quite a number of representatives both
among the native and introduced species. Of the latter the orna-
mental species only concern us. There are about Honolulu a great
many weeds which belongs to this family. Several genera are repre-
sented by only a single species which in turn is represented only by
a single specimen as for example Bridelia glauca Blume a native of
Java, cultivated in the grounds of the Government Nursery on King
Street. Of the genus Phyllanthus about three or four species are
under cultivation as Phyllanthus emblica L. with edible fruits a native
of the Mascarene Islands, East India, the Sunda Islands, China and
There are about two specimens in Honolulu, one in the
Mausoleum grounds, the other on Air. Jordan's premises on Wyllie
Street. Phyllanthus distichus ( L. ) Muell.-Arg. a native of India and
Madagascar, with edible fruits is also present. The ornamental hedge
plant Phyllanthus nivosus Bull, the so called Snow Bush, a native of
the Pacific Islands is the most extensively planted species ; it can be met
with almost in every yard. It is exceedingly conspicuous even from
afar oft" on account of the whitish-pink leaves, which gave it the
horticultural variety name roseopictus. Jatropha multifida L. an
ornamental shrub with umbel-like clusters of scarlet flowers and
palmately divided leaves is sparingly cultivated. The writer knows
of two specimens, one at the Seaside Hotel the other in the Royal
Hawaiian Hotel grounds in Richards Street. Jatropha curcas L. is
of early introduction and is met with in the valleys escaped from
cultivation but not at all commonly. Sapium sebiferum ( L. ) Roxb.
the Chinese tallow tree occurs at Lihue, Kauai.
Of interest, though not belonging to the introduced flora is the
Kukui, Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. extensively planted in
private grounds, especially in Manoa Valley, and easily recognized
by its light yellowish green angularly lobed leaves which are covered
with a whitish pubescence underneath. Hevea brasiliensis (H. B. K. )
Muell.-Arg. the well known Para rubber tree may also be found oc-
casionally, but was formerly planted for commercial purposes.
Acalypha Wilkesiana Muell.-Arg.
ACALYPHA OR Red KALABUCI.
This species of Acalypha, a native of Fiji, is easily recognized
by its large copper-colored leaves, which assume quite often a great
variety of tints — pink, yellow, and brown, and then the plant is
highly ornamental. The male and female flowers are borne separ-
ately, each sex on a slender spike, those with staminate flowers
drooping and those with pistillate flowers upright. It is extensively
cultivated in the tropics as a hedge plant, the vari-colored foliage mak-
ing a pleasing contrast against the usual sombre green of other tropical
plants. It is easily grown from cuttings. The Fijians know the
plant under the name Kalabuci damn or Red Kalabuci.
Other species in cultivation are Acalypha hispida Bl. usually
planted only as an ornamental bush and not in hedges. It is con-
spicuous on account of the floral spikes which are purple and quite
showy. Acalypha marginata Sprengl has smaller leaves, edged with
carmine and a reddish brown center.
A more commonly planted species is Acalypha cuneata Poep. et
Endl. better known as A. obovata; it is a handsome species with
green leaves and creamy white margins which turn to a crimson
hue as the plant matures. Like A. Wilkesiana it is usually planted
as a hedge, and grows freely from cuttings.
Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bin me
The so-called Croton is an erect, glabrous shrub or occasionally
small tree reaching a height of often fifteen feet or more in Hono-
lulu. The leaves are exceedingly variable in shape and color ranging
from linear to oblong, and entire to sparingly lobed, they are undulate
or even spirally twisted and sometimes interrupted. The color ranges
from pale green to purple, red and yellow, some forms are spotted or
The racemes are axillary, solitary, and about ten inches long.
The male flowers are white. The so-called croton is a native of the
Moluccas but is now extensively cultivated in nearly all tropical
countries. The leaves vary tremendously in shape and color and the
* The name True Croton is applied to the numerous species belonging to the genus
Croton of which C. Tiglium I>. is often cultivated.
Croton is by far the most variable plant in the Hawaiian Islands.
It is planted in hedges or in scattered clumps and is quite ornamental.
Scale insects attack it very badly and if not washed carefully the
plant has a dilapidated appearance.
Hura crepitans L.
The Sandbox Tree is of medium height, thirty to forty feet,
with a rather spreading crown and therefore often planted as a shade
tree. The leaves are simple, broad and long stalked, heart-shaped,
and have numerous white veins. The flowers of this tree are
rather peculiar, the male or staminate flowers are arranged on a
spike, while the pistillate flower is naked, with a large trumpet-
shaped divided stigma. The fruit differs from that of other
euphorbiaceous genera in having a capsule of numerous divisions,
reminding one of the fruits of Malva.
When the fruits ripen they split open with a loud report, which
has suggested the name "Monkeys' dinner bell."
The tree is milky throughout and decidedly poisonous, it is acrid
and irritant. The Sandbox Tree is a native of tropical America but
has been introduced into many tropical countries to be planted as a
shade tree. The wood is rather soft, and fibrous in texture. The
seeds are employed as a purgative as is also an oil expressed from
them which is said to be less nauseous than Castor oil. In working
this wood in the West Indies care is taken that the dust does not
enter the eyes or nose as it is very irritant, produces inflammation,
and may even lead to blindness. The milky juice when applied to
the eyes causes almost immediate blindness according to reports
In Honolulu there are only a very few trees or perhaps only two,
one in the Government Nursery grounds, the other on the corner of
Punahou Street and Wilder Avenue, on the vacant park-like lot,
opposite the Pleasanton Hotel. Owing to its poisonous character it
is not a desirable tree.
Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.
The Poinsettia is a milky shrub reaching a height of twelve feet.
The leaves are elliptical, the upper ones lanceolate and pointed, the
Hura crepitans Linn.
Sand-box Tree, specimen with male (below) and female (extreme left
lower ones uniformly green and only the upper ones at the time of
flowering, uniformly bright red. The inflorescence is terminal, the
flowers are crowded and red ; one or two large yellow glands are
present on each of the involucres.
The Potnsettia is only ornamental during the winter months
about Christmas time when it comes into flower, the conspicuous part
is not only the flowers but the upper leaves, which turn bright red.
It is a native of tropical America and Mexico, in which latter
country it was discovered in 1828 by Graham. It is now cultivated
in many tropical countries and is quite common in Honolulu. The
milk\- juice is poisonous. After flowering the plant should be cut
Euphorbia heterophylla L., known as Painted Leaf, is also fre-
quently cultivated but much less so than the Potnsettia. It differs
from the latter in the very variable leaves of which the lower are
entire, and the upper sinuately lobed and blotched with red at the
base. It is also a native of tropical and temperate America.
Euphorbia splendens Boj., Crown of Thorns, an erect branched
shrub three feet in height with grayish cylindrical or angled branches,
which are armed with slender, sharp, long spines, can be found
planted on rockeries and also as a hedge. It is in flower practically
all the year round, the red flowers being not unattractive. It is a
native of Madagascar but is now widely cultivated. Plants may be
seen at the College of Hawaii grounds and on the Punahou Campus,
near the caretaker's house.
Euphorbia tirucalli L. is an erect, glabrous ornamental shrub with
green, fleshy, cylindrical branches, without leaves, and has been planted
at Waikiki opposite the Moana Hotel. It is a native of Africa but
has become naturalized in India.
Euphorbia antiquorum L. is a mall cactus-like milky tree with
three or five angled fleshy branches with spines and very few leaves,
which are deciduous. It is cultivated in parks and private premises.
It is a native of the dry and hot regions of India and Ceylon, where
it is commonly planted as a hedge. Specimens may be seen in Kapi-
olani Park, on King Street, and elsewhere.
Euphorbia trigona Haw., a similar species with three to five
angled, fleshy, cactus-like branches, occurs here also; it differs from
the foregoing in having petioled, obovate-spatulate, fleshy leaves, each
between a pair of thorns. It is closely related to E. cattimandoo.
It is a native of the Deccan, where it occurs in dry, rocky situations.
Specimens may be seen in Mr. G. P. Wilder's premises.
The most noteworthy members of the Mango Family cultivated
in this Territory are Mangifera indica L., the Mango, a native of
India and is here represented by many horticultural varieties.
Spondias dulcis Willd. and Spondias lutea L., the Wi Apple and
Hog-plum or Otaheite Apple, respectively, also Spondias mangifera
Willd. occur. The first is a native of the South Sea Islands ; the
second of the West Indies, and the third, of which there is only one
tree in Honolulu, in the premises of Mrs. M. E. Foster on Nuuanu
Street, is a native of India, where it ascends to 5000 feet elevation
in the Himalayas.
Anacardium occidentale L., the Cashew Nut, a native of America,
is rarely met with ; two trees occur on Dominis Street, near Punahou.
Of Semecarpus Anacardium L. there is only one tree to be found
as far as the writer is aware, it grows in the grounds of Mrs. M. E.
Foster on Nuuanu Avenue. It is a small tree and a native of the
tropical outer Himalayas, ascending to 3500 feet elevation. It was
introduced by Dr. Wm. Hillebrand.
Schinus molle L.
The Pepper Tree is too well known to be described. Suffice it
to say that it is extensively cultivated in Honolulu for street plant-
ing as well as on lawns in private grounds. It does not stand the
wind well and is easily uprooted, it ; is also subject to a fungus and
when it shows signs of disease should be severely cut back.
It is a native of tropical America, especially Brazil, but is now
cultivated both in semi-tropical as well as tropical countries, prin-
cipally in the Americas. In Honolulu it is of comparatively recent
A tree that has of late come into favor a great deal in Honolulu
is the so-called Christmas-berry Tree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi.,
a much more robust species with axillary and terminal panicles of
white flowers and globose, bright red, shining berries.
It is a native of South America, especially of Brazil, where a
number of varieties occur, and from where it was probably introduced.
It fruits during the winter months.
Closely allied to this family is the Corynocarpaceae, of which
the Karaka Tree of New Zealand has been planted, especially on
Kauai in the mountains of Halemanu, where it is well established
and already naturalized. It is known botanically as Corynocarpus
leavigata Forster. It grows at sea-level in its native home and
ascends to an elevation of 1200 feet.
The Soap-berry family is represented by several introduced spe-
cies and mention must be made of Sapindus saponaria L., the Soap-
berry Tree, which is also a native of Hawaii. Only a few trees are
cultivated in Honolulu, one at the Government Nursery and another
on the Beretania Street side of Airs. Jaeger's grounds. A iew trees
of the Longan, Euphoria longana Lam. and one or two mature ones
of the Chinese Litchi, Litchi chinensis Sonn., are also in cultivation.
The only species planted for ornamental purposes is Harpullia
pendula Planch, of which a specimen may be seen in the Queen's
Hospital grounds. It is a native of Australia, and when in fruit is
quite attractive, the black seeds being handsomely contrasted against
the orange-yellow capsule. It is erroneously known as H. Hi/Hi
The family Rhamnaceiae, or Buckthorn family, is represented by
Zizyphus jujuba Mill., the Jujube, a native of tropical Asia but now
widely distributed. Several trees occur in Honolulu, as in the
Queen's Hospital grounds and in the premises of Airs. M. E. Foster,
Of the Vitaceae, or Grape family, the genus Leea is now under
cultivation. The writer is responsible for the introduction of three
species: Leea manillensis Walp., from the Philippines; Leea sambu-
cina Willd., and L. aeuleata Blume from Java. They are quick-
growing, small trees, with handsome inflorescences, the first species
being very attractive on account of the large red inflorescence.
The family Elaeocarpaceae is represented by a single tree,
Elaeocarpus grandis F. v. M. a native of Australia. A single tree
of E. grandis occurs in the Government Nursery grounds on King
Berrya Amonilla Roxb.
Represented by the following species only :
Berrya Amonilla Roxb.
The genus Btrrya, named after the late Dr. Andrew Berry, a
Aladras botanist, consists only of a single species, here described and
It is a large tree with ovate pointed alternate leaves which are
heart-shaped at the base and five to seven nerved. The large flower-
ing panicles are terminal as well as axillary. The calyx is bell-shaped
and irregularly three to five lobed, while the corolla consists of five
spatulate petals ; stamens are many and are inserted on a short torus.
The fruit is a papery capsule which opens into three to four valves;
each valve is two-winged. The seeds are hairy and when touched
sting like the minute hair of the prickly pear.
The Trincomali If ood is a native of South India, Burmah and
Ceylon, but is cultivated in many tropical countries.
In Honolulu the writer knows of two trees; one is in the Govern-
ment Nursery grounds on King Street, where it was evidently planted
by the first Commissioner of Agriculture, Mr. Jaeger. The uses of
the wood are manifold. The heartwood is dark red, close grained, is
apt to check, but otherwise quite durable. Its weight is forty-eight
to sixty-five pounds per cubic foot. In India the wood is employed
for carts, agricultural implements, and even for small boats, while
in Ceylon it is employed for building and other technical purposes on
account of its toughness and flexibility. In Burmah a fibre is made
from the bark.
Some of the most ornamental plants found in Honolulu belong
to this family. Most of the many-colored species of Hibiscus which
are employed as hedge plants are the result of patient labor on the
part of many Honolulans, as for example, W. M. Giffard, G. P.
Wilder, A. Gartley, J. Cummins and others, while Mr. \ . Holt of
the United States Experiment Station has devoted a great deal of his
time to the hybridization of Hibiscus, with wonderful results. The
first successful attempts in cross-fertilization were undertaken by
Mr. W. M. Giffard in 1902, he having produced a large number of
many-colored hybrids. Others then took up the work and perfected
many exquisite creations. The native white and red species were
mostly used in crossing with H. Rosa sinensis and its hybrids.
Other species of Hibiscus occurring in the Territory are Hibiscus
sabdariffa, cultivated not for ornamental purposes but on account of
the fleshy calyx, which is made into preserves; it is known as Rozelle
on the market. Hibiscus tiliact us is indigenous in the Islands. It is
the Hau of the natives, and is trained into arbors, for which it is
especially adapted. Thespesia populnea, another malvaceous species,
known locally as Milo, is also indigenous. It resembles slightly the
Hau, but is an erect tree with straight trunk, and its rather hard
wood takes a fine polish. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. is a climber
with red Hibiscus-like flowers. It is a native of tropical America and
is sparingly cultivated in Honolulu.
Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb.
Hibiscus macrophyllus is a medium-sized tree with the branchlets,
petioles and inflorescence densely clothed with a soft tomentum
mixed with long tawny fasciculate hairs a third of an inch long or
even longer. The leaves are entire, heart-shaped, and softly tomen-
tose on both sides; the blade is from six to twelve inches in diameter,
with a petiole of six to ten inches. The stipules are oblong, convo-
lute, hispid tomentose and deciduous. The flowers are borne in
axillary pedunculate cymes, each flower being enclosed in bud by
two large ovate deciduous bracts. The corolla is two to three inches
in diameter, yellow, and has a dark purple center. The capsule is
pointed and hispid. The seeds are reniform and have long tawny
hair on the edge.
This rather striking and well-named Hibiscus ( macro phyllus~
large leaved) is a native of India, where it occurs in Assam and
Burmah, also in the Malay Peninsula and Java. In Honolulu a num-
ber of trees of this species are in cultivation, as in Thomas Square,
in Mrs. Foster's premises, and on the other side of Oahu, where it
has been found wild or rather as an escape from cultivation, in the
valleys as in Kaipapau and other smaller valleys. On Hawaii sev-
eral trees grow on the premises of Dr. B. D. Bond of Kohala.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
The Commox Red Hibiscus.
The Red Hibiscus, commonly cultivated as a hedge plant in
Honolulu, is too well-known to need description ; it is present in
every yard in Honolulu, being usually planted in hedges. It is prob-
ably a native of southeastern Asia, but is now in cultivation in all
tropical and subtropical countires.
There are now numerous varieties of Hibiscus of all colors, single
as well as double ones. A number of Honolulu people have made
a hobby of cross-fertilizing the red Chinese Hibiscus with some of
the native Hibiscus, of which there are two or three white flower-
ing species, all trees, besides two red ones and a yellow one.
The writer would refer anyone especially interested in Hibiscus
and their hybrids here in Honolulu to a bulletin published by the
Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, under the title: "Orna-
mental Hibiscus in Hawaii," by E. V. Wilcox and V. P. Holt. Bull.
No. 29 (1913).
It may be remarked that an infusion of the flowers produces a
dye of a purplish hue. It is said that a red dye obtained from the
flowers is used in coloring paper. The Chinese are said to utilize the
flowers in a similar way and also to make a black dye from the petals
for their hair and eyebrows.
The flowers are considered of medicinal value, and an infusion of
the petals is given as a demulcent. The leaves are said to be emollient
The bark, like that of //. mutabilis, yields a good fibre.
Hibiscus schizopetalus Hook. f.
The so-called Coral Hibiscus is an erect, glabrous shrub, four
to twelve feet high, with the branches often elongated and drooping;
the leaves are oblong to egg-shaped, pointed, and have toothed mar-
gins. The flowers are borne singly in the axils of the leaves on long
pendulous flower-stalks. The corolla is red, recurved and finely split
into numerous slender laciniate lobes. The staminal tube is long-
exserted and pendulous. This rather handsome species is common in
cultivation and flowers all the year. It is in all probability a native
of Africa, but is now cultivated in many tropical countries and can
be found in nearly every garden of Honolulu, either as individual
shrubs or planted as a tree hedge, as for example, on Young Street,
Hibiscus mutabilis L.
Changeable Rose-Mallow. The double variety.
near the High School. The Coral Hibiscus has been used in Hono-
lulu to a great extent as a male plant in crosses with other Hibiscus.
Hibiscus mutabilis L.
The Rose- Mai I on- is an erect branched shrub, six to fifteen feet
high, and more or less covered with short grayish stellate hairs; the
leaves are five-lobed or five-angled, crenate, about eight inches long,
pointed, and heart-shaped at the base. The pedicels are axillary,
single, and three and one-half to five and one-half inches long. The
flowers, which open white and turn pink to red as the day advances,
are four and one-half inches in diameter, usually double, as in the
case of the plant here figured, but sometimes single.
This true Hibiscus resembles a Mallow, whence the name Rose-
Mallow. It is a native of China, but is now cultivated in most tropi-
cal countries. In Honolulu it is usually found on residential prem-
ises as an ornamental bush, but has not been used successfully in
crossing with other varieties or forms of Hibiscus.
The bark of this species, like that of most of the other members
of the genus, yields a strong fibre. The inner layer of the bark is
soft and silky, while that of the outer layer is hard and lead-colored.
Lagunaria patersonii D. Don.
White Oak, Tulip Tree.
The White Oak is a meduim-sized tree, the young parts and in-
florscence of which are more or less covered with minute scales, but
otherwise smooth. The leaves are oblong, three to four inches long
and somewhat leathery, they are white underneath when young,
glabrous and pale green on both sides when full-grown.
The flowers are quite large and handsome, and are of a deep
pink to purple, resembling the Hibiscus of the same family. The
capsule is lined inside with short barbed hairs, which adhere to the
skin, producing an irritation similar to that produced by the hair of
the prickly pear.
The wood is quite soft and of no commercial value, not even
suitable for firewood. From the bark, however, is prepared a beauti-
The If lute Oak is a native of Norfolk Island, where it grows
Bombax ellipticum H. B. K.
Flowering branch; one-half natural size.
scattered on the grassy hills, and is, perhaps, the largest known
plant belonging to the Mallow tribe, reaching a height of eighty
feet and a trunk of sixteen feet in circumference.
In Honolulu the writer knows of only two specimens, one of
which can be found in the grounds of the Board of Agriculture and
Forestry, where it flowers and fruits profusely, and the other on Mrs.
Jaeger's premises on King Street.
It was evidently introduced and planted by Mr. Jaeger, the first
commissioner of the above-mentioned board. In Honolulu the tree
does not produce such large flowers as it is said to produce in its
As the tree is shapely in appearance, it is worthy of cultivation
and should be planted in avenues. It is well suited for planting
along roadsides, especially near the sea, where it could well replace
the somber-looking Ironwood, as for example, in Kapiolani Park at
Waikiki. It likes a humid climate and a saline atmosphere. It is
easily propagated from seed and probably also from cuttings.
Of the Bombax Family, which contains about 100 species, widely
distributed in the tropics, three genera and four species are cultivated
in the Islands. They are all treated separately in the following
Bombax Ceiba L.
Bombax Ceiba is also a Cotton Tree, but usually of larger dimen-
sions than Ceiba pentandra. Its trunk is very tall, often slender, and
develops huge buttresses. Both trunk and branches are covered with
stout, hard, conical spines. The branches are in whorls, the leaflets
are digitate and deciduous.
The very numerous flowers are fascicled at the end of the
branches when the tree is bare of foliage. The capsule is ovoid,
six to seven inches long, five-valved, and filled with a silky floss in
which the smooth seeds are embedded. This deciduous tree occurs
throughout the hotter forests of India and Burmah, and is widely
distributed over Java and Sumatra. In India it ascends to an ele-
vation of four thousand feet. The inner bark of Bombax Ceiba yields
a good fibre, which is suitable for cordage, while the floss surround-
Trunk of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Jaertn.
To left and right stems of Areca catechu L., the Betel-nut Palm, in
Mrs. M. E. Foster's grounds, Nuuanu Avenue.
ing the seeds yields the so-called "Silk Cotton," a fibre which is,
however, too short and soft to be spun and is therefore used like that
of its congener, Ceiba pentandra, for stuffing pillows, mattresses, etc.
this fibre is known as Si/nal, while that of Ceiba is known as Kapok,
the latter fetches a much better price owing to its better quality and
white color; it also does not become matted as is the case with S'unal
The trunk yields a gum known in India as Mocha-ras, contain-
ing a large proportion of tannic and gallic acids, both useful in
medicine, as astringents. The wood of Bombax Ceiba is white, very
soft and perishable, except under water, where it lasts rather well.
In India the wood is used for planking, tea boxes, coffins, floats, and
the lining of wells.
In Honolulu there are very few trees of Bombax to be found;
one very tall specimen occurring on the Board of Agriculture grounds
on King Street. For some reason Bombax Ceiba does not fruit in
Honolulu and rarely even flowers. The identification is therefore
Bombax ellipticum H.B.K.
In the Queen's Hospital grounds there is a species of Bombax,
with large handsome flowers which appear before the foliage. The
flower buds are long and cigar-shaped and open with a quite audible
noise, after the opening of the flowers the petals curl backward
and expose a mass of pink stamens, which make the flowers exceed-
ingly showy. It is a native of South America and is known botani-
cally as Bombax ellipticum H. B. K. See Plate LVI.
The leaves of this species have five distinctly petioled leaflets
which are prominently nerved underneath. The main petiole is
about ten inches or more long. The tree itself is not ornamental, as
it is bare of foliage for a period and is only about fifteen feet in
height with very few branches.
Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.
Silk Cottox Tree, Kapok.
Plate LVI I.
Ceiba pentandra differs from its relative Bombax Ceiba L. in
its variable columnar trunk with large or often weakly defined but-
tresses which are sometimes entirely wanting. It is a tall tree with
a straight trunk and is prickly only when young, and branches hori-
zontally at right angles to the trunk. The flowers are of a dirty
white, and much smaller than those of Bombax Ceiba. The flowers
Adansonia digitata Linn,
Baobab, Bottle Tree, Monkey-bread.
Flowering and fruiting specimen
of Ceiba pentandra have only five staminal bundles with two anthers
each, while those of Bombax Ceiba divide into numerous filaments
each with one anther. Ceiba pentandra is distributed from Mexico
to the West Indies and Guiana, all over tropical Africa. East India,
and the Malayan Archipelago. In India the tree is usually planted
by the Tamils on the Coromandel coast about their temples. The
flowers appear while the tree is destitute of foliage and are quickly
followed by the leaves, while the fruits ripen in May.
The Kapok Tree has a white, soft wood, which is very brittle
and of no use, except in the manufacture of toys. From the bark
of the Kapok Tree an inferior fibre, reddish in color, is sometimes
prepared and used in India locally for ropes and paper. The floss
from the seed is, however, of great merit, and most important com-
mercially. The capsules are densely packed with a silky floss sur-
rounding the seeds. This floss is used in upholstery for the stuffing
of pillows, etc. ; the fibre being of too short a staple to be spun. The
seeds of the Kapok Tree yield a bright red, clear oil. and are also
eaten, while the young fruits are said to be used in cookery. The
seeds of this tree are made into cakes by the Hindus and used as
fodder for their cattle.
In Honolulu the tree is quite often met with ; nice specimens may
be seen in the grounds of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry, the
Queen's Hospital grounds, Mrs. Foster's premises, and around the
Capitol building. It can always be recognized by its columnar trunk
and horizontal branches. It was introduced into the Island in the
early days, probably by Dr. William Hillebrand.
Adanscnia digitata L.
Plates LVIII and LIX.
Baobab Tree, Bottle Tree, Monkey Bread, Sour Gourd.
The Bottle Tree, or Monkey Bread Tree, known in Honolulu
mainly by these names, is one of the largest and longest lived trees
in the world. Its trunk reaches larger dimensions than that of any
other known tree, often having a diameter of more than thirty feet.
It is a native of the West Coast of Africa, where trees several thou-
sand years old can be found on the tree-grass plains, grassy plains
with trees scattered great distances apart. It forms, with an Acacia,
the sole tree growth on the plains of Uganda. Its roots penetrate
deeply into the ground, while the fleshy trunk, which possesses little
woody substance, is an excellent water reservoir. The Baobab be-
Adansonia digitata Linn.
Baobab or Bottle Tree in the Queen's Hospital grounds.
comes bare during the dry season and in the rainy season brings
forth leaves and flowers, the latter very large and usually six inches
in diameter. The specific name, digitata, refers to the five-fingered
leaves ( digit us=i\nger) . It has been introduced into a great many
tropical countries, especially into India, where it is plentiful on the
coasts cf Bombay and Madras. In Honolulu there are only a few-
trees ; the most noteworthy are the one growing in the grounds of the
Board of Agriculture and Forestry and another (here figured) in
the Queen's Hospital grounds near the Vineyard Street entrance.
In Africa it extends from the Senegal to Abyssinia. It has been
termed "the oldest organic monument of our planet." Adanson, a
famous French traveler who lived in Senegal from 1749 to 1754,
and after whom the tree is named, calculated that a tree thirty feet
in diameter was over five thousand years of age. He saw trees five
to six feet in diameter, on the barks of which were cut European
names, one dated in the fourteenth and another in the fifteenth
When the bark is bruised it exudes a large quantity of white,
semifluid, odorless and tasteless gum. The bark yields a strong and
useful fibre, and the tree has on that account been urged for culti-
vation. In Senegal it is made into rope and even woven into cloth
by negroes, who also make canoes from the very soft wood. Small
trees yield finer fibre than old ones. The fibre is exported and manu-
factured into paper especially suitable for bank notes. The leaves,
bark, and especially the fruit, abound in mucilage. The pulp of the
fruit has a pleasant, cool taste, and is a good refrigerant in fever.
The negroes powder the dry leaves, which the)- call lalo, and use
for excessive perspiration. The fruit varies in size and shape. It
often reaches a length of more than twelve inches and a diameter
of three to four inches, but occasionally has the shape of a gourd. It
contains many brown seeds, is slightly acid, and produces a rather
pleasant drink. The negroes eat the fruits. Owing to the softness
of the wood of the Baobab, the trees are often hollowed out by the
natives of Africa and used for dwelling houses; one of the trees
has been found sufficiently large to accommodate about thirty people.
The natives employ the ashes of the fruits and bark, boiled in oil,
The genus Adansonia contains three species, the one discussed
here, one peculiar to Madagascar, and a third known only from
North Australia, where it is called Sour-Cucumber Tree, on account
of its fruits.
Sterculia urens Roxb.
Besides the species treated below, mention must be made of the
Cacao, or Chocolate Tree, Theobroma cacao L., a native of tropical
America and cultivated in Honolulu but not commercially since the
early fifties. Specimens occur at Ahuimanu Ranch on Oahu, as
well as in Dr. Hillebrand's garden on Nuuanu Avenue.
A species of Pterospermiun is also in cultivation in Honolulu,
but only in Mrs. Foster's grounds. One young seedling has been
planted on the College of Hawaii Campus. It has a rather hand-
some foliage which is white underneath. The tree in Mrs. Foster's
grounds was cut down, but young ones have come up again, as well
as shoots from the old trunk. As there are no flowers or fruits
available, the species cannot be definitely determined, but will prob-
ably prove to be Pterospermum suberifolium Lam., a native of In-
dia. It was introduced by Dr. Hillebrand.
Sterculia urens Roxb.
Plates LX and LXI.
Sterculia urens is a large deciduous tree, with smooth bark of a
whitish or greenish-gray color, which exfoliates in large, thin, ir-
regular scales, the outer bark is papery, the inner fibrous. The trunk
is erect and soft-wooded. Its branches are wide spreading and
marked with large scars. The leaves are terminal and palmately
five-lobed, heart-shaped at the base, almost smooth above and tomen-
tose underneath. The flowers are borne in crowded, erect, some-
what pyramidal, panicles, and are densely clothed with glandular
hair. The fruit consists of four to five radiating, thick, leathery
carpels, about three inches long, which are red at maturity and cov-
ered outside with stiff, stinging hairs; each carpel contains three to
six seeds of a dark brown color.
Sterculia urens is a native of both Indies and also Ceylon, occur-
ring mainly in the northwestern part of India and Assam to Bur-
mah. It yields a gum which is completely soluble in water, forms
a colorless solution, and is equal to tragacanth as an emulsifying
agent. It is used medicinally as a substitute for tragacanth in throat
affections in its native home.
The bark yields a good fibre which is used in rope-making. The
seeds possess cathartic properties but are often eaten by the poorer
natives of India; sometimes they are ground and made into a sort
Sterculia urens has been planted quite frequently in Honolulu
where space permitted it. The finest specimen may be seen in the
grounds of St. Louis College, others in Thomas Square, facing Bere-
tania Street and also in private grounds on Emma Street.
Sterculia foetida Linn.
Sterculia foetida is also a large deciduous tree, with a tall, stout
trunk and horizontal, whorled branches; the leaves are crowded at
their ends, are digitate, consisting of seven to nine elliptical-lanceolate
leaflets. The flowers are arranged in raceme-like panicles six to
twelve inches long; they are red and yellow or dull purple and have
a most offensive odor which attracts carrion flies, which often deposit
their eggs on them. The fruit consists of scarlet woody follicles,
nearly glabrous outside but fibrous inside, containing ten to iifteen
seeds in each. It is of much wider distribution than Sterculia linns,
extending from western and southern India to Burmah, East tropi-
cal Africa, the Moluccas, and North Australia. Like the foregoing
species, it exudes a gum resembling tragacanth. The leaves are used
medicinally ; the seeds are oily, containing about forty per cent of
a fixed thick, pale yellow oil ; they are eaten by the natives of the
various countries in which this species is indigenous, but when swal-
lowed incautiously bring on nausea and vertigo.
Occasionally the wood is used for house building and in the con-
struction of masts and canoes. In Honolulu it is less commonlv
planted than Sterculia urens, probably on account of the offensive
smell of its flowers. Trees of this species may be found in Moanalua
Gardens, opposite the Pleasanton Hotel on Punahou Street, and
probably elsewhere. It is of more recent introduction than the pre-
Brachychiton acerifolium F. v. M.
The Flame Tree is quite glabrous; its leaves are long petioled,
deeply five to seven lobed, the lobes oblong to lanceolate often sinuate,
the whole leaf eight or ten inches in diameter. The rich red flowers
are arranged in loose axillary racemes or panicles. The follicles are
Brachychiton acerifolium F. v. Muell.
Australian Flame Tree.
large, on long stalks, and black when mature. The tree grows to
large dimensions. It is a native of New South Wales, but can be
found in cultivation in both tropical and subtropical countries. The
wood is occasionally used for timber. Honolulu has only a tew speci-
mens, the best ones occurring in the grounds of the Board of Agri-
culture and Forestry on King and Keeaumoku Streets. Mention
must be made of Heritiera littoralis Dryand, of which there are only
about two trees in the Territory, one a straggly looking specimen in
St. Louis College grounds near the entrance. It is a medium-sized
tree with dark red heartwood which is very hard and has reddish
medullary rays. The leaves are leathery, elliptical-oblong and en-
tire. The flowering panicles are shorter than the leaves, the flowers
very small. The ripe carpels, one to three, are woody, glabrous,
shining, and have a strong sharp keel. It is a tropical seashore tree
and is distributed from Burmah to the Andaman Islands, Cevlon,
the tropics of the old world and Australia. The wood is used for
houseposts and rafters and also for firewood. It has received the
name Looking-Glass Tree by Europeans, owing to the dense silverv
hairs which cover the under surface of the leaves.
Brachychiton discolor F. v. Muell.
This peculiar species of the genus Brachychiton is ordinarily a
tall tree with the young shoots tomentose. The leaves are broadly
cordate, shortly pointed at the apex, angular or shortly and irregu-
larly rive or seven lobed, glabrous above, whitish underneath, with a
close tomentum, and are about four to six inches in diameter. The
flowers are borne clustered in the axils of the upper leaves. The
calyx is about one and a half inches long, bell-shaped and colored
(the petals being wanting), tomentose inside and out, and is divided
to the middle into broad lobes with induplicate margins. The fruit
consists of follicles which are woody in this species, about four to
six inches long, pointed, and are densely rusty-tomentose outside.
This species, which has no common name, is a native of Australia,
occurring in the northern part of that continent, in Queensland and
New South Wales. In Honolulu there is only a single specimen ; it
was introduced by the late Mr. Jaeger, in whose premises it grows.
It flowers in the late fall.
Brachychiton discolor F. v. Muell.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
Sterculiaceae. 1 S5
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.
GUAZIMA OR GuASIMA, THE BASTARD CeDAR.
The genus Guazuma possesses four species, of which the one here
cited is the most common, all are natives of Central and South
The Guazima, as the tree is called throughout the Antilles,
reaches a height of forty feet and has a rather straight trunk. The
leaves are simple, (undivided), serrate, and stellate hairy, especially on
the under side. The flowers are small and rather insignificant ; the
fruit is woody and covered with stout, short spines. It is undoubtedly
a native of the West Indies, but has long been in cultivation in the
warmer parts of India and Ceylon. In Honolulu there seem to be
only a few trees of this species; one grows in the Government Nur-
sery grounds on King Street, and another in Mrs. M. E. Foster's
The wood of the Bastard Cedar is rather loose grained, of a
brownish color, streaked, and somewhat coarsely fibrous. It is
occasionally employed in India for furniture, panels of carriages,
and packing cases. The young luxuriant branches yield a fibre of
considerable strength, useful for rope-making.
The tree has medicinal properties which have been employed in
Alartinque. The infusion of the old bark is esteemed 1 as useful in
diseases of the chest. The inner bark is cut into small pieces, boiled
in water, and strained when cool, the dose is from two to three
fluid ounces. In the West Indies a similar decoction is used as a
remedy for Elephantiasis.
It is also stated that the glutinous decoction of the inner bark is
employed in the West Indies for clarifying sugar, while the wood
is used as fuel and the light charcoal in the manufacture of powder.
In Southern India the tree has been planted mainly in avenues,
for which it seems admirably adapted.
Kleinhofia hospita L.
The genus Kleinhofia consists of a single species, which is a
handsome tree twenty-five to forty-five feet or more in height. The
leaves are broadly ovate, pointed, five to seven nerved, heart-shaped
at the base, about four inches each way, with leaf stalks half as long.
The flowering panicles are ample and large and bear small pink- or
rose-colored flowers; the capsule is about an inch long, inflated, pear-
Kleinhofia hospita L.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
shaped, thin, papery, and is divided into rive valves, each valve con-
taining a single seed.
This rather handsome tree is a native of the Eastern and West-
ern Peninsulas of India and is distributed over Malacca, Formosa,
Singapore, Ceylon, Java, the Philippines, and Eastern Africa. It
flowers from August to November.
In Honolulu there are only two mature specimens, one on the
corner of Beretania and Union Streets, the other, a very tall tree, on
King Street near the Y. W. C. A. Homestead.
It thrives well in low, moist countries and is well suited for
planting along avenues. It has been used for this purpose in Cal-
cutta and in the Bombay Presidency. The old timber of this species
is much valued in Java, though no information is available as to its
uses. Seemann reports this tree as indigenous in Fiji on Vanua Levu,
where it is known to the natives as Marnakara.
Species under cultivation belonging to this family are as fol-
lows: Garcinia mango stana L., the Mangosteen, a single tree on
the Island of Kauai, and one other on Alaui are the only ones in the
Territory. Garcinia Xanthochymus Hook, f., a moderate-sized tree
of pyramidal stature, with dark green foliage and yellow fruits, is
quite commonly planted. It was first introduced by Air. Albert
Jaeger. It is a native of India, Burmah and the Andaman Islands.
CalophyUuin inophyllum L., the true Kaniani, is also common. It
is indigenous in these islands and is therefore treated in the writer's
book on the "Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands." Cratoxylon
polyanthum Korth. var. ligustrinum Bl. a glabrous aromatic shrub a
native of tropical Asia is under cultivation in Honolulu. 1 he writer
knows of a single specimen in the Queen's Hospital grounds near the
Vineyard Street entrance.
The family Bixaceae consists of a single genus with a single
species, which is sparingly cultivated in Honolulu. The very closely
related family Cochlospermaceae, once classed with the Bixaceae, has
a single species represented of the genus Cochlospermam.
Cochlospermum balicum Boei'l.
Bixa crellana Linn.
The Anatto is a small tree or shrub of handsome appearanc?.
The leaves are ovate, cordate, and have a pointed apex. The flowers
are white or pink, quite numerous, and are followed by burr-like
ovoid capsules, at first green but later changing to a deep red, and
are covered with slender, soft spines. The seeds are covered with
an arrillus of a bright orange-red color, which constitutes the Anatto
It is a native of tropical America, but is now widely distributed
in the tropics of the world. The arrillus is often removed from the
seeds while fresh and compacted into cakes, in which form it is ex-
ported into the United States for manufacture into butter color.
Over seven hundred thousand pounds were annually imported,
valued above fifty-four thousand dollars, but lately aniline dyes have
supplanted it. Only a few specimens, mostly shrubbv in appear-
ance, may be found in Honolulu, especially on Nuuanu Avenue in
Cochlospermum Balicum Boerl.
This rather handsome species here illustrated is a native of the
East Indies and is under cultivation in Java, where the writer saw
it in the Botanic Gardens of Buitenzorg. Its large, handsome, bright
yellow flowers give it a very ornamental aspect. The leaves are.
however, subject to insect attacks and have a dilapidated appearance.
It is probably related to C. hibtscoides and C. vitifolium. Only
a single tree is at present under cultivation in Honolulu, in Mr.
G. P. Wilder's grounds.
This family, which consists of about 550 species, is distributed
over most tropical countries and is represented in Honolulu by two
introduced species belonging to the genus Flacourtia, Flacourtia
sepiaria and Fl. Jangomas, the latter known as Fl. Cataphracta
Roxb., which name is a synonym. Both species have edible fruits?
which are of the size and color of a cherry. They may be found in
Mrs. M. E. Foster's premises. Of the latter species one tree occurs
also on the Old Plantation grounds on King Street.
Pangium cdulc Reinw., a fruit tree, has also been introduced.
While this family does not come within the scope of this work,
mention must he made of Cert us triangularis (Linn.) Haw., the
Night-blooming Cereus, a native of Mexico, remarkable for its large
white flowers and red, quite palatable fruits. Cultivated extensively
in the islands, the finest specimens may be seen on the stone wall en-
closing the Punahou Campus. It may not be out of place to mention
Carica papaya L.. the Papaya, which, next to the Pineapple, is the
most extensively cultivated fruit in the Territory. The first Papaya
tree in these Islands was probably one planted by Mr. G. Wundenberg
at Hanalei in 1848.
This rather large family is represented in these Islands by sev-
eral species, two of which are of striking beauty and are discussed in
the last two chapters.
Lawscnia inermis L.
The Henna is an erect, much branched shrub, ten to eighteen
feet in height; the leaves are oblong-elliptical, pointed, and about an
inch or more long; the flowering panicle is ten to twelve inches long
and its lower branches are subtended by leaves; the flowers are very
fragrant, rather small, and usually straw-yellow; the fruit is a de-
pressed globose capsule a few lines in diameter.
Henna is commonly cultivated for its fragrant flowers in many
tropical countries; it is a native of Africa and India, but may now
be found well distributed over the tropics. It is the only species of
the genus Lawsonia; the latter having been named in honor of Dr.
J. Lawson, a Scotch friend of Linnaeus.
It is cultivated in many provinces of India for the sake of its
dye and fragrant flowers, and partly as a hedge plant. The natives
of India employ a decoction of the leaves in dyeing cloth, the color
produced being a shade of yellow or reddish-brown, which is known
as M'dagiri. The most important use of Hi una in India is as an
article of toilet; the leaves being used for staining the fingers, nails.
hands and feet, and for dveing the hair. The custom is a very old
one among the Mohammedan population of the world, dating back
to the earliest times, as is shown by ancient mummies. The seeds
yield a little known oil, while the flowers are used in perfumery and
embalming. The ancient Egyptians used the flowers to perfume the
oils and ointments used in embalming.
Medicinally the Henna has been employed from the remotest
times. The Egyptians used it as an astringent ; Persian writers des-
cribe the leaves as a valuable external application in headaches. If
applied to the hair and nails they have the reputation of promoting
The only chemical substance of medicinal value known to be
contained in Henna is an astringent principle which has been termed
H ennotannic Acid.
Only very few Henna shrubs can be found in Honolulu as it is
not cultivated or much known by the people of these Islands. A
handsome Henna plant can be seen in the Government Nursery
grounds on King Street. It is well adapted for hedge planting and
would be worthy of cultivation.
Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.
Lagerstroemia speciosa is a medium to large-sized tree reaching
often a height of sixty feet, but flowers when a mere shrub six feet
in height. The leaves are leathery, oblong, and obtuse or shortly
pointed. The large flowering panicle is terminal, and up to a foot
and a half in length. The flowers are lilac-purple and of exquisite
beauty. The capsules are obovoid or ellipsoidal and contain many
seeds, which are winged at the apex.
This large deciduous tree is a native of Eastern Bengal, Assam
and Burmah, ranging as far as Australia.
Owing to its large panicles of beautiful lilac flowers it is now
cultivated in many tropical countries, but curiously enough only
sparingly in Honolulu. The finest specimen may be found in Dr.
W. Hillebrand's garden on Nuuanu Avenue, where it flowers during
the fall, producing afterward an abundance of capsules.
The wood is light red in color, and is one of the most valuable
timbers of India and Burmah, where it is valued next to Teak. It
is used in the construction of ships, boats and canoes, and also for
building purposes. It is very durable under water but decays under
ground. The root is astringent, while the seeds are narcotic and
the leaves are said to be purgative.
Lagerstroemia speciosa (L. ) Pers.
A species of Crape Myrtle; flowering branch.
Another very handsome species is hag erst roc una indica Linn.,
the Crape Myrtle. It is, however, not a tree, but a shrub twelve
to fifteen feet in height, with slender, four-angled branches, which
are narrowly winged ; the leaves are much smaller than in the fore-
going species. The flowers are very showy, pink or purplish and are
arranged in small terminal panicles. The capsule is also smaller.
The Crape Myrlte is a native of China, but has been widely cul-
tivated. In Honolulu it is much more common than the foregoing
species, but still not plentiful. Both species certainly deserve to be
more generally cultivated. It is a profuse bloomer and is most
easily cultivated from seed as well as cuttings. It blossoms during
a period of two or three months beginning usually in June. Speci-
mens may be seen on Nuuanu Street, also on Keeaumoku Street, and
elsewhere. It was named in honor of Magnus v. Lagerstroem
(1696-1759), a friend of Linnaeus.
Of the Punicaceae or Pomegranate family, which consists of a
single genus with two species, only the common Pomegranate, Pun'ica
granatum L., is under cultivation. It is a native of eastern sub-
Formerly the members of this family were classed with the
Myrtaceae, with which it has, however, little in common. It is
much closer to the Mangrove Family ( Rhizophoraceae ) , through Bar-
ringtonia on one side and to the Blattiaceae through the genus Foeti-
dia on the other.
The genus Barringtonia only is represented by two species.
Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Km-z.
(Syn. Barringtonia speciosa Forst. )
The Barringtonia asiatica is a large, handsome tree with thick,
leathery, glossy, bright green wedge-shaped leaves which are glab-
rous; the flowers are quite conspicuous, having four white petals and
numerous crimson-tipped stamens, resembling a brush ; the fruit has
the shape of a four-sided pyramid, is quite large and consists, when
dry, of a solid fibrous case, which is smooth outside and contains one
seed. This fibrous case enables the fruits to float, and as it is quite
thick and solid, it protects the seed from coming into contact with
salt water, thus keeping its germinating power from being destroyed.
Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz.
The tree is decidedly a beach tree and forms extensive beach
forests in some of the Pacific islands. It depends on the ocean cur-
rent for its dispersal, hence its wide distribution. It is a native of the
Andaman Islands, Singapore, Ceylon. Guam, Samoa, the Philippines
and other countries bordering on the Pacific, but not of Hawaii.
In the Moluccas a lamp-oil is expressed from the seeds, while a
drug is prepared from the bark; the active principle appears to be a
volatile oil combined with resin ; the drug is a narcotic and is used
by the natives of the various countries above-mentioned in stupefying
fish. The dry fruits are also gathered by the natives and used as
fishing floats, in place of cork. There are quite a number of trees
planted about Honolulu, the largest occurring in Mrs. Foster's
grounds on Nuuanu Avenue. A few have been planted on Beretania
Street and a fine specimen may be seen in the grounds of the Uni-
Another species of Barringtonia under cultivation is B. racemosa
Roxb., a smaller tree, with long drooping racemes of white or pink
flowers. The single specimen in Honolulu was planted by Dr.
W. Hillebrand on his premises. This species is a native of India,
Ceylon and Polynesia, flourishing on open lowlands near the sea.
The Terminalia family comprises about 250 species, with the
following in cultivation in Honolulu.
Terminalia catappa L.
Umbrella Tree, False Kamaxi, Ixdiax Almoxd.
The so-called Kamani is a large tree, which sometimes reaches a
height of seventy-five feet. The branches are long and spreading,
horizontal, or nearly so. In its young state the branches are some-
what turned upward, resembling an inverted umbrella, whence the
name. The leaves are large, obovate, shining, and taper below to
a narrow and cordate base, and finally into a short petiole. The
small white flowers are arranged in spikes, the latter are axillary,
simple and up to seven inches in length. The fruit is one-seeded,
compressed, ellipsoidal in outline, prominently two-ridged, and up
to two inches or more in length. The Umbrella or Kamani Tree
is of wide distribution, occurring in the Philippines and extending to
India and Malay. It was introduced into these Islands many decades
ago and is now very commonly planted as a shade tree. In the
autumn the leaves turn red and drop off, but are soon followed by
the bright green, shining young foliage. It is decidedly a tree of
the seashore and grows very rapidly in good, light, sandy soil.
The tree yields a gum which is known in the West Indies as
almond gum. The bark and leaves are astringent and contain tannin
up to 9 per cent. The kernels yield a valuable oil which resembles
almond oil in flavor and odor, and does not become rancid so readily
as the true almond oil. The kernel may also be eaten ; it is quite
palatable and fairly nutritious.
The wood is reddish and rather soft, and may be used for posts.
Terminalia Chebula Retz.
The Black Myrobalan is a large deciduous tree, abundant in
Northern India. It is a very polymorphic species, the most variable
part being the fruit. In India the tree ascends to an elevation of
5000 feet in the sub-Himalayan tracts. The dried fruit forms the
myrobalan of commerce and is considered one of the most valuable
tanning materials in India. There is only a single tree in Honolulu,
on the premises of 1814 Ahuula Street.
Quite a number of other species of Terminalia have been intro-
duced, as for example, Terminalia sumatrana, T . arborea, and others.
A vine belonging to the genus Quisqualis, Q. indica L., is also in
cultivation, but rather rare.
This rather large family consists of about 3000 species and is
represented in the Islands by quite a large number of species, mostly
fruit trees rather than ornamental trees. As the former have already
been treated to some extent by Mr. G. P. Wilder, they are simply
mentioned here. Of the genus Eucalyptus about 80 species are culti-
vated, but mostly in the uplands, and as they are not exactly of
ornamental value, they are here omitted. The most common and now
naturalized member of this family in the Islands is the Guava, Psid-
ium Guayava L., a native of Mexico. Its introduction is to be ac-
credited to Don Marin, a Spaniard who came to the Islands in
1791. Numerous Eugenias are also in cultivation, as Eugenia Jam-
bolana Lam., E. Jambos L., E. brasiliensis Lam., E. unifiora L., E.
malaccensis L. ; several other species of Psidium, as P. cattleyanum
Sab., and the several forms of P. Guayava, as pyriferum and pomi-
Myrtus communis L., the common Myrtle, may also be found,
specimens occurring at Kaimuki near 10th Avenue and Waialae
The most commonly planted Eucalypti are: E. globulus, E. ro-
busta, E. calophylla and E. citriodora. The writer would refer any-
one especially interested in Eucalyptus to a Bulletin on the Eucalyptus
Culture in Hawaii, by Louis Margolin, published by the Board of
Agriculture and Forestry. It treats mainly of the commercial pos-
sibilities of a few species. The determinations made by Margolin
are, however, not reliable.
Syncarpia glomulifera (Sm.), known as S. laurifolia, the latter
name a synonym, is also under cultivation ; but on the highlands only.
It is a native of New South Wales. Species of Melaleuca are also
grown, the most noteworthy being M. leucadendron L., the Cajeput
Tree. The Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl. is an evergreen tree,
native of the West Indies. Specimens are also in cultivation in Hono-
The Aralia family is composed of 54 genera and 650 species, with
the following cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands:
Nothopanax Guilfoylei (C. et M.) Merrill
Nothopanax Guilfoylei, which, unhappily, has no common name,
is an erect shrub with straight ascending branches, and reaches a
height of twelve feet or more. The leaves are pinnate, having from
five to seven large ovate leaflets, with the margins distantly but
prominently and sharply serrate; the apex is rounded, the base some-
what uneven, the margins white, and the upper leaf surface also fre-
quently blotched with white.
This species has never flowered in Honolulu, where it is one
of the most common hedge plants. It is a native of Polynesia, but
is now widely cultivated. It grows very easily from cuttings and is
one of the most satisfactory and clean hedge plants, as it is not
at all attacked by insects.
Ncthopanax fruticosum (L.) Miq.
Nothopanax fruticosum , less commonly seen than the foregoing
species, is a shrub three to seven feet in height with decompound
three pinnate leaves. The leaflets and ultimate segments are usually
very diverse in form, are pointed and sharply spinulously toothed
to even lobed ; they are of a uniform yellowish-green color. The in-
florescense is terminal, the flowers are numerous, and arranged in
umbels. It is a very variable species and flowers commonly in Hono-
lulu. It is probably a native of Polynesia.
In Honolulu it is rarely or never planted as a hedge, and when
planted singly assumes the form of a large globose bush. Fine speci-
mens may be seen in the Pleasanton Hotel grounds.
Other species belonging to this genus are Nothopanax cochleatum
(Lam.) Miq., an erect shrub up to nine feet or more in height with
simple suborbicular, somewhat concave saucer-like leaves. It is
very common in Guam and the Philippines, but rare in Honolulu.
Specimens occur on the premises of Mr. G. P. Wilder and the Col-
lege of Hawaii grounds.
Nothopanax ornatum, probably also A. pinnatum, and on or two
varieties of K. fruticosum, as variety victoriae Hort., are also in
cultivation but not at all common.
Brassaia actinophylla Em 11.
Brassaia actinophylla is a handsome tree which attains a height
of forty feet. The leaves are composed of seven to sixteen leaflets,
which are stalked, oblong or obovate-oblong in outline, leathery, and
entire. The flowers are arranged in little dense heads along the
stout rhachis of racemes several feet in length, and of which there
are often several together at the end of the branch. The inflorescence
is red, and the fruits contain about twelve one-seeded laterally com-
pressed pyrenes, and are dark purplish-black in color.
The genus Brassaia consists of this single species, which is pe-
culiar to Australia. It is extensively cultivated in Honolulu and
grows from cuttings as well as from seed. It makes an admirable
pot-plant in its young state and is quite ornamental as a tree. It is
immune to insect attacks, and when in flower is quite a showy object.
Brassaia actinophylla F. v. Muell.
On the Kaahumanu School grounds, Beretania Street.
The Ardisia family possesses 33 genera and nearly 1100 species;
the genus Ardisia is only represented by two cultivated species.
Ardisia humilis Vahl.
Ardisia humilis is a shrub six to ten feet in height, with thick,
fleshy glabrous branches ; the leaves are obovate oblong, acute at the
base and rounded at the apex, thick, fleshy and smooth on both sides,
and are on very short leaf stalks. The inflorescence is glabrous,
drooping and shorter than the leaves. The flowers are pinkish-
purple with small black dots dispersed over the surface of the petals
and sepals ; the berry is subglobose and dark purple.
This species is a native of the East Indies, extending over Bur-
mah to Southern China, the Philippines and neighboring islands. It
is cultivated on account of its pretty purplish flowers, and clean,
glossy leaves. In Honolulu specimens occur in Mrs. M. E. Foster's
premises. Another species, A. solanacea Roxb., a native of India
(in the tropical regions of the East Himalayas), is perhaps identical
with the foregoing species, with which it is united by several
authors, save C. Mez, who considers it a separate species in his mono-
graph on the Myrsinaceae. It does in fact differ from A. humilis in
the petals, which are obtuse and not acuminate, and in the anthers,
which are smooth and not rugose and dotted as in A. humilis. The
leaves are obovate-oblong, acute and not obtuse at the apex.
Fine specimens of this species may be found in the grounds of the
Government Nursery on King Street, and in Mrs. M. E. Foster's
The family Plumhaginaceac is represented by the blue-flowered
Plumbago auriculata Lam., commonly known as P. capensis Thunb.,
which is a synonym. It is a native of South Africa, but now com-
The Sapotaceae include quite a number of fruit trees, some of
which are cultivated in the Islands, as for example, Achras sapota L.,
the Chico of Mexico, a species of Bumelia, Chrysophyllum Cainito
L. the Star-apple, and Chrysophyllum monopyrenum S\v. the so-
called Damascene Plum. Of interest here is Mimusops elengi L.,
a tree reaching a height of forty-five feet. The leaves are green,
shining, elliptic and glabrous; the flowers are axillary, solitary, in
pairs or fascicled and fragrant; the corolla is white. The fruit is
ovoid, about an inch or less long, one- or rarely two-seeded. It is
occasionally cultivated and specimens may be seen in the Government
Nursery, in the Hilo court yard and elsewhere. It is a native of
India, where it is cultivated. It yields a gum known as Aladras
gum, while the fruits are used medicinally in diseases of the gums and
teeth. A volatile oil is distilled from the flowers, while a fixed oil
is obtained from the seeds by compression which is used for culinary
purposes and is also burned in lamps. It is supposed to be sacred to
the Mohammedans of southern India.
The Ebenaceae or Ebony family is represented by only a single
species, belonging to the genus Diospyros, D. Ebenaster Retz, which
produces a large, globose, edible fruit, nearly black when ripe. The
fruit flesh is brownish.
It is a native of Mexico and is cultivated on the Island of Oahu
only on the windward side, below the Pali. It has been erroneously
recorded as Diospyros decandra by G. P. Wilder.
Besides the species treated below, there are represented in Hawaii
the true Olive, Olca europea L.. which rarely bears seed ; Osmanthus
fragrans Lour., a small shrub or tree whose native home is East
India, and Fraxinus floribunda Wall, introduced bv the writer from
the Eastern Himalaya, where it is a large tree. Specimens have
been planted out in upper Makiki Valley. Another species of Fiaxi-
nus grows on Union Street, back of the Pacific Club. This latter
Ash tree belongs to the section Fraxinaster, but as only a single male
tree is in cultivation, the species has not been definitely determined.
Noronhia emarginata Toir., the only species of the genus Noron-
hia, a native of Madagascar and Timor, is cultivated in Honolulu.
It produces edible fruits. A single tree grows in the Government
Nursery grounds. The Japanese privet, Ligustrum ovalifolium
Hassk., is also in cultivation besides Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. )
Roth., the Star Jasmin, trained over fences and pergolas; it is in
blossom all the year round.
Linociera intermedia Wight,
var. Roxburghii C. B. Clark
The variety Roxburghii of Linociera intermedia, C. B. Clark,
also known as Olea paniculata Roxb., is a medium - sized tree
with papery leaves six and a half by two and a half inches, which
are on petioles of a half to one inch. The flowering panicle varies
from two to five inches in length, and has compressed branches. The
flowers are white and consist of four petals and two elliptical, shorter
stamens. The fruit is of the shape of an olive, glaucous and about
half an inch or less long.
This species is a native of India, where it occurs in the Nilgherry
hills up to an elevation of 6000 feet. There are very few trees of
this species in Honolulu ; one is in Mrs. Jaeger's premises. There is
also a specimen in Hilo. The wood is pale brown, hard, close
grained and durable, and is valued in the manufacture of agricultural
Besides the following species there is in cultivation a species of
Fagraea with long tubular, white, fragrant flowers. A single tree
grows at the Maunwili Ranch on the windward side of Oahu.
Strychnos nux-vomica L.
The Nux-vomica or Strychnine Tree.
The Strychnine Tree, which attains the height of forty feet, is
a native of India, and is found throughout tropical India, being rare
in Bengal but very common in the Madras Presidency and Tennas-
serim. It can be found up to an altitude of 4000 feet. The leaves
are three and one-half by two inches, ovate and five-nerved, are
glabrous, and have short leaf stalks. The floral cymes are terminal,
short stalked and bear many flowers; the fruit resembles very much
a Chinese orange or Mandarin, being of the same color when ripe.
It is one and one-half inches in diameter, and contains many white,
flat, disc-shaped seeds. The seeds, from which is produced the
strychnine of commerce, yield also a dye used for producing light
brown shades on cotton.
Nux-vomica entered into European medicine about the middle of
the sixteenth century and was first accurately described by Valerius
Cordus. About 1640 it was used chiefly for poisoning cats, dogs,
crows and ravens, and has only been employed medicinally, as a nerve
tonic, since the beginning of the nineteenth century. The alkaloid
strychnine is extracted from the seeds mainly, but this substance seems
to exist also in the wood and root of the tree, and even plants grow-
ing parasitically on it absorb and contain these same alkaloid pro'M r-
ties, mainly in their leaves. The strychnine preparations are mainly
used in nervous disorders as a tonic and stimulant, for example, in
phthysis as a respiratory stimulant and in chronic constipation from
weakness of the bowels.
The gathered seeds are freed of the pulp, washed and dried and
are then ready for export. The seeds contain two alkaloids — strych-
nine and brucine — whose characters are amply described in works
on materia medica.
The pulp of the fruit, though also containing strychnine, is eagerly
devoured by birds without apparent harm. In the Nilgherry hills in
India the native tribes use the seeds as a fish poison.
The wood is brownish-gray, rather hard and close grained, but
splits in seasoning; in Burmah it is used for carts and agricultural
implements as well as for cabinet work.
In Honolulu there are only a very few trees, one in the Govern-
ment Nursery grounds and a few in Mrs. Foster's premises on
Nuuanu Avenue, planted by Dr. W. Hillebrand, evidently in the
early seventies if not earlier. They bear an abundance of fruit in
the month of March.
The Plumiera or Plumeria family possesses about 1300 species,
which are distributed in 32 genera. The following are representa-
tives of nine genera.
Mention may be made of several vines and a small perennial, as
for example, two yellow-flowering species of Allamanda, A. Hender-
sonii Bull, and J. cat liar tica L. The former species differs from the
latter in having a much larger corolla, nearly five inches long,
twice the length of that of A . cathartica. Both are subscandent shrubs.
Trachelospermum divaricatum (Thbg. ) K. Sch., commonly
known as Rhynchospermum jasminoides Lindl., is also cultivated,
specimens occurring in Mrs. M. E. Foster's premises.
Lochnera rosea (L.) Reichb., known as J'inca rosea, is cultivated
generally and may also be found wild as an escape from gardens.
Another vine or liana belonging to this family is Beaumontia
grandiflora ( Roxb. ) Wall, a climber of great beauty. It is a native
of the Eastern Himalaya and cultivated widely. Some fine speci-
mens occur in Honolulu. It is easily recognized by the large white
flowers. Of late Carissa carandas L. has also been in cultivation.
It has white, fragrant flowers and scarlet, edible fruits, and is a
native of Africa.
Of the family Asclepiadaceae (Milk-weed family.) Cryptostegia
grandiflora (Roxb.) R. Br. may be mentioned. It is supposed to be
a native of Madagascar, and has pale purple flowers. It is occasion-
ally planted in Honolulu but is not common.
Other climbing species belonging here are: Hoya carnosa R. Br.,
the wax plant, and Stephanotis floribunda Brong., with large, white
tubular, strong-scented flowers. Calotropis gigantea R. Br., the giant
milk-weed, a native of India, is of tree-like habit and occasionally
planted ; the leaves are broad, whitish and woolly beneath ; the
flowers are rose and purple colored.
Plumiera acutifolia Poir.
Temple Flowers, Graveyard Flowers, Fraxgipaxi.
The Plumiera or Plumeria, as it is commonly called in Honolulu,
is a milky tree nine to twenty feet in height, with fleshy swollen
branchlets which are leafy at their tips. The leaves, which appear
after the flowering stage, are oblong, narrowed at both ends and
eight to sixteen inches long.
Plumiera rubra Linn.
The numerous very fragrant flowers with strangely overlapping
corolla-lobes are yellow, or white and yellow, within ; the fruit is a
linear-oblong or ellipsoid follicle.
This species is one of forty belonging to the genus Plumiera, all
of which are peculiar to tropical America. It is now commonly
cultivated for its fragrant flowers, which bloom nearly all the year
round, and is very common about Honolulu, especially in cemeteries.
The Hawaiians make leis or wreaths from the flowers by threading
them and by pushing one flower into the tube of the other. This
lei is a favorite with the Honolulu people, who decorate their depart-
ing friends with it.
The Plumiera is now cultivated in many tropical countries as an
ornamental tree. It was found in India growing abundantly as long
ago as 1787 by a Dr. Hove, who mentions that the natives used the
bark of this tree for intermittent fever as we do cinchona. The leaves
when made into a poultice are used to dispel swellings, while the
milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. In northern
Bengal the milky juice of this tree has been found to be an effectual
purgative. Another but rare species, Plumiera rubra L., the Red
Plumiera, a native of tropical America, has been cultivated by Mr.
W. M. Giffard. The first specimen was brought to Honolulu from
Mexico by Mrs. Paul Neumann and was given to Mr. E. W.
Jordan, who turned the specimen over to Mr. W. M. Giffard on
whose premises the tree has attained magnificent proportions. See
The original tree was fertilized in the normal manner by the
common hawk-moth, the pollen coming from the yellow variety of
Plumiera acutifolia, produced seeds, which in turn were planted and
thus were obtained the first hybrids which were distributed over the
city. Many crosses exist now between the common species and the
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.
Alstonia scholaris is a tall, glabrous tree reaching a height of
over sixty feet, producing an abundance of milky sap. The branches
are whorled, the leaves verticillate, leathery, about eight inches long,
oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex and pointed at the base. The
flowers are arranged in terminal cymes, which are umbellately
branched. The small white flowers are numerous and crowded. The
follicles are pendulous, slender, cylindrical and eight to sixteen
It is a widely distributed species, occurring in Africa, tropical
Ochrosia elliptica La Bill.
Asia, Malay and Australia. There are only two trees in the Ter-
ritory as far as the writer is aware ; both may be found in the prem-
ises of Dr. W. Hillebrand on Xuuanu Avenue, who is responsible for
its introduction to Hawaii. The tree is commercially known as Dita
Bark, and occurs under various names in India, where it grows in
the sub-Himalayan tracts up to 3000 feet elevation. Dita Bark is a
valuable and highly ornamental tree which deserves to be cultivated.
It is used medicinally and is listed in the Pharmacopaeia of India.
The bark is an astringent and is given as a tonic. The milky juice
is applied to ulcers and is also used to restore the tone of the stom-
ach in debility, and the substance known as Ditain is considered equal
to the best sulphate of quinine, and at the same time is free from
the secondary disagreeable symptoms of the latter drug. Ditain was
first separated from the bark in the form of an uncn stallizable prin-
cipal, by a druggist in Manila.
Ochrcsia elliptica La Bill.
(Syn. O. calocarpa Miq. Lactaria calocarpa Hassk. )
Considerable confusion exists in regard to the nomenclature of
this striking species. The writer saw the tree growing in the gardens
of Peradenya, Ceylon, under the name of Ochrosia acuminata, and
was found published in "List of plants grown in the Bot. Gard. of
Peradenya," 1888, p. 51 (name only). Dr. Valeton of Java des-
cribed and figured a species under 0. acuminata Trimen, which is,
however, an entirely different plant, with yellowish-green, pointed
fruits. The species here in cultivation has bright scarlet fruits,
which have a violet odor, and is identical with Ochrosia elliptica
La Bill., described from Australia. This latter name Valeton cites
doubtfully as a synonym of Ochrosia calocarpa, which he figures and
declares to be polymorphous species. One figure agrees exactly with
our plant. Since elliptica is the older specific name it is here re-
Ochrosia elliptica La Bill, is a small, milky tree with leaves
horizontally arranged in whorls of three or four or occasionally op-
posite, and elliptical in outline. The flowers are cream-colored, fra-
grant, and are arranged in corymbose cymes. The fruit, which
consists of two drupes, is scarlet, each drupe is acuminate and an inch
or two long.
When in fruit this tree is quite conspicuous, the scarlet drupes
being handsomely contrasted against the green glossy foliage.
Thevetia neriifolia .luss.
Flowering and fruiting specimen of the Yellow Oleander or Be-still Tree.
It is a native of Queensland, Australia, as well as of some of the
Pacific islands, as New Caledonia and Fiji. In Hawaii the plant is
cultivated, trees occurring at Ainahau at Waikiki, Airs. Jaeger's
premises, on the Government Nursery Grounds and the largest in
the garden of the late Dr. W. Hillebrand, who evidently introduced
it into these Islands.
Cerbera odollam Gaertn.
Cerbera odollam is a small tree about twenty to twenty-five feet
in height, with lanceolate to oblong lanceolate leaves, which are
narrowed at both ends. The flowers are arranged in cymes, which
are as long as the leaves, the flowers are white, about one and a half
inches long, the tube is slender and the lobes spreading. The fruit
is borne in pairs more or less united, or singly, and is two and a half
inches or more long, ellipsoidal or ovoid in outline.
This very poisonous tree is a cosmopolitan on the seashores of the
tropics, occurring in India, China, Malay, Australia and Polynesia.
It has been introduced into these Islands a few decades ago. The
writer knows of two trees, one on the premises of the grammar
school on Emma Street, formerly Princess Ruth Keelikolani's palace,
and another on the Government Nursery grounds.
The milky sap and the leaves have been used in India as an
emetic, but their use has been condemned, as even moderate quan-
tities possess so much poison as to be dangerous. The nut is also
poisonous and narcotic, the green fruits having been employed in
India to kill dogs. The kernel of the fruit is considered an irritant
poison, which when taken internally produces vomiting and purging
and is soon followed by collapse and death. The wood is soft-spongy
and gray in color.
Thevetia neriifolia Jnss.
Be-still Tree, Campanilla, Yellow Oleander.
This very poisonous small tree, erroneously called yellow olean-
der, reaches a height of fifteen to twenty feet, is much branched
and possesses a copious milky sap. The leaves are linear, sessile, and
shining. The flowers, which are borne singly in the axils of the
leaves and the branches, are bell-shaped, bright yellow, and very fra-
grant, having the odor of the tea rose. The fruit is a subglobose,
glabrous, shining drupe, an inch in diameter, and becomes black when
It is an ornamental shrub or small tree introduced from tropi-
cal America and now cultivated in many tropical countries. It flowers
all the year round, and is quite commonly planted in and about
Honolulu. It is well naturalized in Bengal and the plains of India.
From the seeds a bright yellow oil is expressed, which burns well
without giving off much smoke, it is also of medicinal value, as it
contains triolein, tripamitin and tristearin. De Vry obtained, after
expression of the oil, from the cake, about four per cent of a beauti-
ful crystallized white glucoside, which he called thevetine ; the same
substance was obtained from the bark.
The milky juice of this tree is highly poisonous. The bark, which
is a cathartic, is also a powerful febrifuge, and was tried in the form
of a tincture in various forms of intermittent fever with good results.
When given in large doses it is a powerful poison, in smaller doses
it acts as an acrid purgative and emetic.
The poison contained in the seeds, juice, and bark, belongs to the
class of acro-narotic poisons. Great caution is necessary in all trials
with this remedy.
A second species, Thevetia Iccotli DC, a native of Mexico, is
cultivated in Kapiolani Park. It differs from the foregoing in the
larger flowers and the very narrow linear leaves, which are pubescent
underneath and are also revolute.
Nerium indicum Mill.
(Syn. Nerium odorum Soland.)
Nerium indicum differs from Nerium oleander of the Mediter-
ranean region in the sweet-scented flowers and ternate leaves. The
latter species may also be in cultivation in the Islands, but those
which the writer examined belong all to Nerium indicum. It is
an erect shrub with the leaves in whorls of three to four, they are
linear-lanceolate and pointed. The flowers are about two inches
across, white, pink, or red, and are quite fragrant. It often pro-
duces fruit (two long follicles) quite profusely.
It is a native of India, ranging from Afghanistan to Japan, but
is now cultivated in most tropical, subtropical, and even temperate
regions. It can be grown from seed, layers and cuttings, and is pro-
fusely planted all over Honolulu, as well as on the other islands.
Apoc) naceae-Borraginaceae. 183
N. oleander, the true Oleander, differs from it in having broader
leaves and larger, scentless flowers.
Both species are poisonous ; the root is especially poisonous, but
considered a remedy in skin diseases. From the root are obtained two
bitter principals, known as Neriodorin, a substance soluble in chloro-
form, and Neriodorein, a substance soluble in water but not in
chloroform. Both are very powerful heart poisons. Overdoses of the
roots cause tetanic symptoms, and in case of poisoning the heart action
is greatly reduced. The flowers play a religious part among the
natives of India who collect them as a sacred offering to Siva.
Besides the common Heliotrope, Heliotropium peruvianum Linn.,
the following trees are in cultivation.
Cordia sebestena Linn.
Cordia sebestena is a shrub or small tree with ovate, subcordate
leaves which are scabrous on the upper surface and slightly pubes-
cent underneath. The flowers are large orange or scarlet and borne
in terminal cymes. The fruits are snow-white.
It is a native of tropical America, but can quite often be found
in cultivation. In Honolulu a few mature trees occur, as for exam-
ple on Thomas Square and in private grounds on King Street. It is
easily grown from seeds when the latter are quite fresh, and also
Cordia myxa Linn.
Cordia myxa is a small sized tree fifteen to thirty feet in height,
and is nearly glabrous. The leaves are ovate or elliptical-ovate,
entire and have a somewhat wavy margin.
The inflorescence is corymbose and axillary, bearing very small,
sessile, white or yellowish-white flowers. The drupe is fleshy, ovoid,
yellowish-white and somewhat enclosed by the persistent and en-
Cordia myxa is a native of India, extending also to Burmah and
Malay. It is wild along the Himalayas and flowers in March and
April. The fruit, which is very mucilaginous, is used medicinally,
the mucilage being given in diseases of the chest and also as an as-
tringent gargle. It is also employed as a laxative in bilious affec-
tions, and the kernels are considered a remedy for ringworm. The
1 84 Borraginaceae-Verbenaceae.
wood is gray, moderately hard, but is readily attacked by insects.
The tree was introduced by Prof. Koebele, and quite a number
of specimens may be seen along the Pali Road.
Besides the above species there is in cultivation Cordia Collo-
cocca DC. a native of the West Indies, and another species, prob-
ably Cordia alba R. S., introduced by the U. S. Experiment Station
under the name Cordia latifolia, with which it has nothing in com-
Tcurnefortia argentea Linn.
Tourntfortia argenta is a small tree fifteen to twenty feet in
height or taller, with closely placed leaves at the end of the branches,
the former obovate-oblong, tapering at the base, and are covered
with a whitish-gray, silky pubescence, as are also the twigs.
The numerous white flowers are borne in large terminal silky-
pubescent cymes. The fruit is the size of a small pea, globose-de-
pressed, smooth, and the nutlet is corky.
Tournefortia argentea is decidedly a beach tree and has a very
wide distribution. It is by far the principal tree on the coral islets
or atolls of the Pacific, as, for example, on Palmyra Island, where
the tree encircles all the low coral islets. In its branches the com-
mon booby, Sula piscator, erects its roosting place. See Bulletin No.
4, College of Hawaii Publication, "Palmyra Island, With a De-
scription of Its Flora," by the writer.
In Honolulu only very few trees are in cultivation, as on Young
Street in the Japanese school grounds and one on the other side of
Oahu beyond Haleiwa.
At Kahului, on the Island of Maui, there are several tall trees
near the beach.
The tree is of little economic value, though quite ornamental.
Besides the species of J r itex, Tectona, and Duranta, the family
is represented by several species of Clerodendron : — CI. fragrans
Vent., a garden weed with pink and white flowers found along road-
sides. The flowers have an overpowering odor.
CI. Thomsonae Bait, is a climber and easily recognized by the
white or cream-colored calyx and red corolla which brought it the
name Bleeding Heart.
CI. Siphonanthus R. Br. is also in cultivation but quite rare.
One of the finest is CI. squamatum Vahl, with scarlet inflorescence
and flowers, and dark blue-black, fleshy berries.
Vitex pubescens Vahl.
Jitex pubescens is a large evergreen tree with quadrangular
branches. The leaves consist of five leaflets which are sessile, and
as the inflorescence, are densely clothed with a soft, tawny pubes-
cence. The inflorescence is dense, pyramidal, three to five inches
across. The bracts are persistent. The drupe is small, globose and
This species, of which there is only one specimen in Honolulu,
in Dr. Hillebrand's garden, is a native of India, Burmah and the
Andaman Islands. The wood is smooth, gray, hard and close-
Another species of Vitex not definitely identified is a large tree
with gray bark and very hard wood ; the leaves are three-foliate
and densely pubescent, as are the young branches. The flowers are
blue and axillary, the drupe globose and about half an inch in diam-
eter. It may be identical- with V. vestita Wall.
Tectona grandis Linn.
The Teak Tree.
The Teak, when full-grown reaches a height of eighty to one
hundred feet, has quadrangular branches which are stellately tomen-
tose. The leaves are very large, especially the young ones or those
of seedlings, measuring sometimes three feet. The flowering pani-
cles are terminal, eighteen inches or more in diameter, bearing numer-
ous flowers, only few of which are fertile; the corolla is only one-
fourth inch long, and white. The fruit is a drupe two-thirds of an
inch in diameter, four-celled, with a central cavity which is densely
hairy ; the calyx, which is persistent and encloses the fruit, is ovoid
to subpyramidal, membraneous and often reticulately nerved.
The Teak is a large deciduous tree, indigenous to the peninsulas
of India, the drier regions of Eastern Java, Sumatra, and is also
found on a few islands of the Indian Archipelago. In Burmah it
extends to the twenty-fifth degree of north latitude, but no exact
information is available in regard to the area under Teak in India ;
it is estimated, however, that the supply is practically unlimited. The
most extensive Teak forests occur in upper Burmah and are com-
mercially the most important of all forests in British possession. The
Teak does not form natural pure forests except on alluvial soils,
in which the growth of the Teak is rather rapid, thus giving it an
Tectona grandis Linn. f.
Flowering and fruiting specimen.
advantage over competing vegetation. Owing to its commercial
value Teak has been planted extensively in India, the Andaman
Islands, and other neighboring countries.
The sapwood of the Teak is white and small, while the heart-
wood when cut gives off a pleasant, rather strong aromatic odor, the
color of the heartwood is a dark golden yellow, which on seasoning
darkens into brown and becomes mottled with darker streaks. It is
moderately hard, exceedingly durable, does not split, warp, shrink nor
alter its shape when once seasoned. Most of the Burmese pagodas
or shrines are carved of Teak, its durability is mainly due to a large
quantity of resinous fluids that it contains, which fill the pores and
thus resist the action of water. Teak-wood two thousand years old
seems perfectly good at the present day.
The leaves of the Teak are said to yield a dye of a red or yellow
color used mainly for dyeing silks.
The native physicians of Burmah recommend the medicinal prop-
erties of the Teak for various ailments, for example, a plaster of
powdered wood for bilious headaches and for dispersion of inflam-
matory swellings. Charred wood saturated with poppy juice and
reduced to a smooth paste is used to relieve swellings of the eyelids,
etc. The bark is employed as an astringent and the oil of the nuts,
which has an agreeable odor, is used as a hair tonic, and is supposed
to remove itching of the skin.
Though cultivated in many tropical countries, the tree is rare in
Honolulu, only very few trees exist, perhaps only a half-dozen in all.
One can be found on the Government Nursery grounds on King
Street and others on Mrs. Jaeger's grounds on King and Punahou
Streets, and on Mrs. Foster's premises on Nuuanu Street. Owing
to its deciduous character and rather slow growth it is not a tree
to be recommended for ornamental plantings.
Duranta repens Linn.
Duranta repens, commonly known as Duranta plumieri Jacq., is
an unarmed, glabrous, erect shrub six to ten feet high with the
branches often drooping. The leaves are obovate-elliptical, the base
is wedge-shaped and the margins toothed above the middle. The
axillary racemes form terminal panicles, which are slender and spread-
ing with the flowers mostly on one side of the rachis ; the former are
blue or white; the fruit is flesh}-, ovoid, and yellow.
Duranta repens L
Duranta repens is a native of tropical America, hut is widely cul-
tivated in the tropics. In Honolulu it is quite plentifully planted
as a hedge for which it is splendidly adapted. The genus was
named in honor of Castor Durantes, a botanist who died in 1590
Mention must be made of Petraea volubilis Jacq., a climbing
shrub with long racemes of blue flowers and very rough, scabrid,
grayish-green leaves, which gave it the name Sandpaper Vine. The
ordinary, now naturalized, Lantana, L. camara L., belongs also to
the family I erbenaceae.
The Potato family is represented by several genera of which the
most noteworthy are the following: Cyphomandra Hartwegi Sendt.,
a native of New Granada, cultivated on account of its ovoid fruits,
which remind one of the taste and flavor of the tomato, whence it is
known as Tree-tomato. It makes excellent preserves, and is also pala-
table uncooked, stewed it makes a delicious desert. To the vines be-
long Solatium IV en (11 an du Hook, f., the Potato vine, with large many-
flowered cymes of blue flowers an inch and a half in diameter, and
another species with smaller, blue flowers. One of the finest climb-
ers, with large, yellow flowers is the Golden Cup, Solandra grandi-
flora Sw., a native of Mexico and Central American Islands. It is
easily grown from cuttings or seeds. Of shrubs the following may
be mentioned: Oestrum nocturnum L., known here as Chinese Ink-
berry, and very common in Honolulu, especially in Nuuanu Valley;
it is a native of tropical America; others are Cestrum diurnum L.,
also called Chinese-Inkberry in Honolulu, and C. aurantiacum Lindl.
with yellow flowers. The latter is not common.
Of interest is also Datura arborea Linn., the so-called Angel's
Trumpet, a small tree with ovate-lanceolate leaves which have the
margin entire; the flowers are large, white, trumpet-like, and have a
musky odor ; the calyx is spathe-like and the limbs of the corolla are
long, facts which distinguish it from Datura suaveolens H. et B. The
latter has an inflated calyx with five obscure teeth, short corolla
limbs, and an angular tube. Both species are probably in cultivation.
They are natives of Chile and Peru. Specimens are rather rare in
Honolulu, but common on Hawaii from Hilo to Glenwood, along
the Volcano Road.
Jacaranda ovalifolia R. Br.
Flowering branch of the Jacaranda.
The Bignonia family, which is represented in these Islands by the
cultivated species of flowering trees described in the following pages,
has also several vines of great beauty well established in the resi-
dence section of Honolulu, such as the orange trumpet vine, Pyro-
stegia (Bignonia) venusta, Bignonia unguis-cati, Cat's-claw Climber
or Hug-me-tight, formerly known as Bignonia tweediana; the grace-
ful Bignonia jasminoides with pale purplish flowers, and one or two
others which do not come within the scope of this work.
The family belongs decidedly to the tropics, and possesses about
one hundred genera with four hundred fifty or more species.
Tecomaria capensis (Thbg. ) Fenzl., supposedly a native of Bra-
zil, but found wild all over the Cape of South Africa, cannot well
be omitted. It is a shrub but more often a low bush with prostrate
runners. The flowers are borne in terminal racemes, and are of a
scarlet color. It fruits rarely, the capsules are linear and compressed.
Shrubs of this species may be seen at the Haleiwa Hotel grounds,
at the College of Hawaii Campus and elsewhere.
Parmentiera cerifera Seem., the Candle Tree, is of recent intro-
duction. Specimens have been planted at the College grounds. The
tree forms large forests in Panama, which are covered at all seasons
with long, yellow, candle-like fruits.
Jacaranda ovalifolia K. Br.
(Syn. Jacaranda mimosa efolia D. Don.)
The Jacaranda is a very handsome medium-sized tree with bi-
pinnate leaves which remind one of those of the Poinciana. The
leaflets are rhomboid, oblong, somewhat pointed and little over one-
fourth of an inch long. The handsome, pale bluish-purple flowers
are arranged in large terminal cymes. The calyx is small, while
the bluish bell-shaped corolla is two inches long; the tube is curved
below, inflated above, and the limb two-lipped, with one lip two-
lobed, the other three-lobed. The fruit is a capsule, circular in out-
line and flat.
The genus Jacaranda possesses more than thirty species distributed
from the Bermuda Islands to Brazil. The tree in question is a
native of Brazil and Argentine, but is cultivated for ornamental
purposes in many tropical countries. It flowers in the early spring
before the appearance of the leaves and is exceedingly striking when
in the height of its flowering season.
It is quite extensively planted in and about Honolulu ; fine speci-
mens can be seen along King Street, Keeaumoku Street and in other
parts of Honolulu. The tree is at any time an object of beauty on
account of its handsome, graceful foliage, and when bare it is con-
spicuous for the mass of blue, bell-shaped flowers.
It is worthy of being planted more extensively; an avenue of this
elegant tree would enhance the beauty of Honolulu considerably.
Sparattosperma verniccsum (Cham.) Bur. et K. Sch.
(Syn. Sparattosperma lithotripticum Mart.)
Sparattosperma vernicosum is a magnificent tree which becomes
bare for a certain period in the year just before flowering. It is me-
dium sized, somewhat buttressed at the base, has a straight trunk
and a few ascending branches. The long petioled leaves consist of
five leaflets, digitately arranged. The inflorescence is a terminal
panicle bearing a profusion of canary-yellow flowers in the summer
months when the tree is otherwise bare of foliage.
It is a magnificent spectacle when in full bloom and certainly
deserves to be cultivated. It is a native of Brazil, but can now be
found in many botanic gardens in the tropics. In Honolulu there
are only two mature specimens, one of which flowered profusely
two years ago for the first time. One is on Judd Street, the other
in Mrs. M. E. Foster's premises on Nuuanu Avenue. The writer
brought two young trees of this specimen with him from Java.
They were grown at Buitenzorg from seed. It is known also as
Sp. lithotripticum, and is famous as a medicinal remedy, taking the
place of lithotripsy, whence the specific name. The species was
introduced by Dr. W. Hillebrand.
Tecoma stans (L.) Juss.
The Amarillo is an erect, branched shrub or small tree reaching
a height of about twelve feet when full-grown. The opposite leaves
are odd-pinnate, about eight inches long, consisting of five to seven
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate leaflets, with sharply serrated margins.
The flowering panicles are terminal, with the flowers racemosely ar-
ranged on the few branches; the yellow bell-shaped corolla is about
two inches long; the capsular fruit is linear, six inches long by one-
third of an inch wide.
The Amarillo is merely an ornamental shrub and is planted
mainly for its showy yellow flowers. It is a native of tropical
America, but has found its way into many tropical countries, where
it is cultivated. In Honolulu it occurs here and there in gardens
and private grounds. A well-established specimen may be found in
the Queen's Hospital grounds.
Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv.
Fountain Tree, or Tulip Tree.
The Fountain or Tulip Tree is of medium size, but occasionally
reaches a height of seventy or eighty feet. The leaves are odd-
pinnate, consisting of usually nine leaflets which are elliptical-
oblong, slightly pointed at the apex and of a dark green color; the
upper leaflets are larger than the lower ones. The large flowers,
which are borne on the ends of the branches, are bright orange-red
with golden-yellow margins. The ground beneath the trees is often
thickly covered with the exceedingly striking and handsome flowers.
The unexpanded flowers contain a quantity of water, which
fact has secured for this tree the name "fountain tree" in India,
where it is cultivated as an ornamental shade tree.
The genus consists of three species, all of which are natives of
tropical Africa. The species in question has been in cultivation, in
many tropical countries on account of its very conspicuous flowers.
In Honolulu there are only a few specimens, the largest ones
occurring in Mrs. Jaeger's and in Mrs. Foster's grounds, on Puna-
hou Street and Nuuanu Avenue respectively. Smaller ones grow in
Mr. Samuel Damon's grounds at Moanalua Gardens. The trees
do not seed here, but could easily be grown from cuttings, and ought
to be planted more extensively in avenues.
In regard to the uses made of this tree, other than ornamental,
nothing definite is known.
The seeds of this tree are whitish, fine, fluffy, and fill a capsule
which is boat-shaped and about ten or twelve inches long. The
capsules are used by the children of the natives in Java as playthings,
as they make perfect little canoes. Seeds have been imported from
Madagascar and the writer has also brought them from Java, to-
gether with living seedlings.
^— ^ <
Spathodea campanulata Beauv.
Fountain or Tulip Tree.
Flowering specimen; to the right, branch with flower buds.
The Fountain or Tulip Tree will not be a rarity in Honolulu in
the near future, as over 2000 seedlings are on hand at present.
Crescentia cujute L.
The Calabash Tree is a glabrous tree with stout, stiff, hori-
zontally spreading branches, and reaches a height of about fifteen
feet. The leaves are fascicled or alternate, and spatulate in outline,
obtuse or shortly pointed, narrowing at the base and subsessile —
that is, with hardly a leaf-stalk. The upper surface of the leaves is
glossy. The flowers, which have a rather foetid odor, grow singly
or in pairs, are curved and are pale green with faint purplish lines;
the five equal lobes are pointed and toothed. The fruit is globose,
green or purplish and six to ten inches in diameter.
Of the five species of the genus Crescentia, the Calabash Tree is
the best known. It is a native of the West Indies and South
America, but is occasionally cultivated in many tropical countries.
The fruit is used for receptacles of various kinds and can be
shaped to any desired form while growing, by means of binding.
The juice of the fruit is used as a purge, and is said to cause abortion
in cattle. Medicinally the pulp is employed together with other
ingredients as a cough remedy.
The wood, which is rather tough and flexible, is used in Jamaica
for shafts, saddles, chairs and other articles requiring such wood.
In Honolulu quite a number of trees of this species can be found
in the various grounds of private residences, especially along the lower
part of King Street, also in the Capitol grounds. It is conspicuous
for its large globose fruits, which are almost sessile on the long,
spreading, stiff branches.
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.
The Sausage Tree is a wide-spreading deciduous tree about thirty
feet in height, with odd-pinnate, alternate leaves ; the leaflets are
ovoid to elliptical, and pointed or rounded at the apex. The large
showy flowers, which range in color from dark purplish-red to
magenta, are about four inches in diameter, and bell-shaped ; they
are arranged in long pendulous loose panicles and last only one day.
The remarkable fruits are grayish in color, oblong in shape, and
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.
are suspended on the peduncles which increase in length during the
maturing of the fruit. The latter is fifteen to twenty inches long
and three to four inches thick. The resemblance of the fruit to a
large sausage gave it the rather undignified name" Sausage Tree."
Kigelia africana, as the specific name implies, is a native of
Africa, especially of the western tropical coast of that continent. It
has been in cultivation, however, in most tropical countries and has
found its way also to Hawaii.
As the tree is deciduous — that is, bare of leaves for a certain
time during the year, it is not well adapted for street planting; an-
other disadvantage is the dropping of the flowers shortly after their
In Honolulu there are several of these trees; the largest and
finest can be found in the Queen's Hospital grounds, while others
are near the entrance in Air. Charles Atherton's grounds on King
Street, and still others at Aloanalua Gardens and Kapiolani Park.
Except for ornamental purposes the tree is of no economic value.
When planted, however, it should be given plenty of room, as it is
a spreading tree, developing a symmetrical crown.
The family Acanihaceae is represented by four genera out of
the 204, which possess about 2000 species, all natives of tropical and
warm regions. Besides Graptophyllum pictum, described below,
there are in cultivation Thunbergia erecta ( Benth.) And., an erect
glabrous shrub with a slender four-angled stem ; the white flowers
are axillary and solitary; Thunbergia grandiflora ( Rottb. et Willd.)
Roxb., a large, coarse, somewhat woody vine, with large, axillary
flowers which may be solitary or arranged in long pendulous race-
mes ; the corolla is of a pale blue ; it is a native of India.
Barleria cristata L. is a much-branched shrub with violet flowers
and two persistent green sepals, which are laciniately toothed. It is
a native of India, and is usually grown as a hedge. It grows freely
Sanchezia nobilis Hook., an erect shrub, is also cultivated ; it
is a native of Ecuador.
Of the family Scrophulariaceac, Russelia juncea Zucc, the Coral
Flower, an erect, nearly leafless plant, with angled stem and bright
red tubular flowers, is often planted on rockeries. It is a native of
Graptophyllum pictum ( L. ) Griff.
Flowering branch of the green leaved variety.
Graptophyllnm pictum (L.) Griff.
( Syn. Graptophyllum hortexse Xees.)
The name Morado, which is of Spanish origin, is applied to this
species in the Philippines and for want -of a name in Honolulu ma}'
be adopted here.
The Morado belongs to the Acanthus family (Acanthaceae) and
is an erect branching shrub six to ten feet in height; the leaves are
opposite, oblong to broadly elliptic, somewhat pointed at both ends,
four to eight inches long, two to four inches wide, green and vari-
ously mottled with white or yellowish-white, or dull purple, with
short leaf-stalks. The two-lipped, dull purple or reddish-purple
flowers are borne in terminal panicles and are one and a half inches
long, the upper lip is shortly two-fid, the lower three-lobed, stamens
two with two small staminodia ; the ovary is four-ovuled.
The fruit is an oblong, hard, long-stalked capsule. The Morado
is a native of New Guinea and the neighboring islands, but, owing
to its variegated leaves, which remind one of the crotons, and the
rather handsome purple flowers, has been in cultivation in many
tropical countries, and can be found in Honolulu in a great many
The name Graptophyllum is from the Greek, meaning "writing"
and "leaves" in allusion to the variously marked leaves. The genus
consists of four species, natives of Australia and Polynesia.
Graptophyllum hortense Xees., a horticultural variety of this
species, has bronze-colored mottled leaves; it occurs sparingly in
The Coffee family is an exceedingly large one, comprising about
400 genera with over 5500 species, which occur mainly in the tropics
and sub-tropical regions. Of introduced genera only a few are
worth mentioning. Two species of Coffee are under cultivation as
Coffea arabica L. and Coffea liberica Bull., the latter growing wild
as an escape from cultivation in the mountains back of Honolulu,
the former is cultivated extensively in Kona, Hawaii.
Ornamental species are Rondeletia odorata Jacq., a native of
Ixora macrothyrsa Theijsm. et Binn.
Cuba and Mexico. Specimens may be seen in Mrs. M. E. Foster's
premises, in the grounds of the Central Grammar School, and else-
where. It resembles a small Ixora with small rugose leaves, the
flowers are more of an orange-red. Gardenia florida L., the fragrant
white Gardenia, is commonly cultivated. The flowers are usually
double. It is a native of China and Japan, but is now widely
planted. A little over a year ago the writer introduced a few
plants of the exceedingly handsome Mussaenda erythrophylla Schum.
et Thon. from Singapore. It is a native of the Congo and the West
Coast of Africa, and is considered one of the finest ornamental
plants. It is in flower practically all the year round, and is con-
spicuous on account of the large, ovate bracts, which are of a deep
carmine red. It is easily grown from cuttings.
Cinchona succirubra R. et P., the Quinine Tree, a native of Peru,
and Ecuador where it grows wild on the slopes of Mt. Chimborazo,
has been planted on Maui, where a few trees may still be seen near
Ixora macrothyrsa Theijsm. et Binn.
This exceedingly handsome species is a large glabrous shrub with
leaves nearly a foot long, oblong-linear in outline. The flowering
cluster is very large, often eight inches across, bearing many deep
red flowers with lanceolate obtuse lobes. It is a native of Malay,
but now one of the most commonly cultivated species. It is easily
grown from cuttings. In Honolulu it can be found in practically
every yard and is also sold by florists.
Ixora coccinea Linn, is another species commonly cultivated in
Honolulu. It is a shrub with sessile or subsessile cordate leaves,
and corymbiform, densely flowered cymes. The corolla is scarlet.
It is a native of the Malay Peninsula and Ceylon. It flowers through-
out the year.
Hybrids of Ixora macrothyrsa are also in cultivation, besides one
or two species of Pavetta.
HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN PRESS
Names in italics are synonyms,
Acacia catechu 76
Acacia dealbata 76, 87
Acacia decurrens 76, 85
Acacia Farnesiana 76
Acacia Koa 85, 122
Acacia melanoxylon 85
Acalypha cuneata 128
Acalypha marginata 128
Acalypha obovata 128
Acalvpha YVilkesiana 128
Achras sapota 172
Actinophloeus Macarthuri 11
Adansonia digitata 145
(Plates LVIII and LIX.)
Adenanthera pavonina 91
Aegle marmelos 120
Agathis australis 4
Albizzia Lebbek (Plate XXXIV.) 83
Albizzia lebbekoides 76
Albizzia saponaria 85
Albizzia stipulata 76
Aleurites moluccana 127
Alexandra Palm 13, 47
Allamanda cathartica 175
Allamanda Hendersonii 175
Alligator Pear 72
Allspice 168 -
Alstonia scholaris 177
Alternanthera versicolor 69
Amherstia nobilis 77
Amoora Aphanamixis 125
Amoora cucullata 125
Amoora grandifolia (Plate LI.) 125
Anacardium occidentale 132
Andaman Redwood 115
Angel's Trumpet 189
Anona Cherimolia 70
Anona muricata 70
Anona reticulata 70
Anona squamosa 70
Antigonon leptopus 69
Aralia Family 168
Araucaria Bidvvillii (Plate II.) 7
Araucaria Cookii 7
Araucaria cunninghamii 7
Araucaria excelsa 6
Archontophoenix alexandrae 13, 47
Archontophoenix elegans 47
Ardisia Family 171
Ardisia humilis 171
Ardisia solanacea 171
Areca Catechu (Plate I.VI.) 49
Areca lutescens 43
Areca rubra 47
Arecastrum Romanzorhanum 57
Arenga obtusifolia 41
Arenga Saccharifera 39
Artabotrys uncinatus 71
Artocarpus communis 62
Artocarpus integrifolia 62
Asoka Tree 91
Attalea Cohune (Plate' XXIII.). ...53
Averrhoa carambola 120
Azadirachta indica 123
Bael fruit 120
Bamboo Palm 17
Banana Family 57
Banyan Tree 63
Baobab Tree 145
Barleria cristata 197
Barringtonia asiatica 163
Barringtonia racemosa 165
Barringtonia speciosa 163
Barringtonia Family 163
Bastard Cedar 155
Bauhinia monandra (Plate XLI.) 99
Bauhinia tomentosa (Plate XL.) 97
Bean Family 76
Beaumontia grandiflora 175
Berrva Amonilla (Plate LIV.). ... 135
Be-still Tree 181
Betel-nut Palm 49
Bhel fruit 120
Bignonia Family 191
Bignonia jasminoides 191
Bignonia tiveediana 191
Bignonia unguis-cati 191
Bignonia venusta 191
Bixa orellana 159
Black Bean 113
Black Kauri 5
Black Myrobalan 167
Bleeding Heart 184
Bloodwood Tree 107
Blue Palm 23
Bombax Ceiba 141
Bombax ellipticum (Plate LVI.) 143
Bombax Family 141
Borassus flabelliformis 33
Bottle Palm 41
Bottle Tree 145
Bougainvillea glabra 69
Bougainvillea spectabilis 69
var lateritia 69
var. parviflora 69
Brachvchiton acerifolium 151
Brachvchiton discolor 153
Brassaia actinophvlla 169
(Plate LXIX.) '
Bridelia glauca 127
Broom Palm 17
Brownea grandiceps 77
Brownea hybrida 77
Buckthorn Family 133
Bullock's Heart 70
Cabbage Palm 45
Cacao Family 149
Cactus Family 160
Caesalpinia coriaria 109
Caesalpinia pulcherrima 109
Caesalpinia sappan Ill
Caesalpinioideae 76, 77
Cajeput Tree 168
Calabash Tree 195
California Fan Palm 25
Calophyllum inophyllum 157
Calotropis gigantea 175
Camphor Tree 73
Cananga odorata 70
Canangium odoratum 70
Canarium commune 121
Canarium Nut Familv 121
Candle Tree 191
Carica papaya 160
Carissa carandas 175
Carludovica palmata 57
Caroline Ivory-nut Palm 35
Caryota mitis 39
Caryota urens (Plate XVI.) 37
Cashew Nut 132
Cassia alata 101
Cassia fistula (Plate XLIII.) 103
Cassia florida 99
Cassia glauca 101
Cassia grandis 103
Cassia Javanica 107
Cassia laevigata 101
Cassia nodosa (Plate XLIV.) 105
Cassia siamea (Plate XLII.) 99
Castanospermum australe 113
Castilloa elastica 62
Casuarina equisitifolia 61
Casuarina quadrivalvis 62
Catharto carpus 105
Cat's-paw Climber 191
Cedrela Toona 121
Ceiba pentandra (Plate LVII.) 143
Ceratonia siliqua 91
Cerbera odollam 181
Cereus triangularis 160
Cestrum aurantiacum 189
Cestrum diurnum 189
Cestrum nocturnum 189
Chamaerops humilis 13
Chamaerops macrocarpa 13
Changeable Rose-Mallow 139
Chinese Banyan 65
Chinese Ink-berry 189
Chinese Tallow Tree 127
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens 43
Chrysophyllum cainito 172
Chrvsophylluin monopyrenum 172
Cinchona succirubra 201
Cinnamomum camphora 72
Cinnamomum Zeylanicum 72
Cinnamon Tree 72
Clausena Wampi 120
Clerodendron fragrans 184
Clerodendron Siphonanthus 184
Clerodendron squamatum 184
Clerodendron Thomsonae 184
Clitorea ternatea 77
Coccoloba uvifera 69
Coccothrinax argentea 17
Coccothrinax barbadensis 19
Cochlospermum Balicum 159
Cochlospermum hibiscoides 159
Cochlospermum vitifolium 159
Coconut Palm 53
Cocos nucifera 53
Cocos odorata 57
Cocos plumosa (Plate XXIV.).... 55
Cocos Romanzoffiana 55, 57
Codiaeum variegatum 128
Coelococcus carolinensis 35
Coffea arabica 199
Coffea liberica 199
Coffee Family 199
Cohune-nut Palm 53
Colonial Pine 7
Combretaceae — 165
Copal Tree 93
Copernicia cerifera 13
Coral Flower 197
Coral .Hibiscus 137
Cordia alba 184
Cordia Collococca 184
Cordia latifolia 184
Cordia myxa 183
Cordia sebestena 183
Corynocarpus laevigata 133
Corypha umbraculifera 19
Cotton Tree 141
Covered-Seeded Plants 9
Cowrie Spruce 5
Crape Myrtle 163
var. ligustrinum 157
Crescentia cujute 195
Croton -s, 128
Crown of Thorns 131
Crpytomeria japonica 4
Cryptostegia grandiflora 175
Cuban Palm 17
Cupressus funebris 4
Cupressus sempervirens 4
Custard Apple 70
Cycas circinalis (Plate I.) 3
Cycas media 3
Cycas revoluta 1
Cyphomandra Hartwegi 189
Dalbergia sissoa 77
Damascene Plum 172
Dammar a australis 4
Date Palm 13
Datura arborea 189
Datura suaveolens 189
Delonix regia (Plate XLV.) 107
Dictvosperma album 47
Dictvosperma (Areca) rubra 47
Diospyros decandra 172
Diospyros ebenaster 172
Dita Bark 179
Duranta plumieri 187
Duranta repens (Plate LXXIV.).. 187
Dwarf Fan Palm 13
Ebony Family 172
Egyptian rattle pod 114
Elaeis guineensis (Plate XXII.) .. 51
Elaeocarpus grandis 133
Elephant's Ear 77
Enterolobium cyclocarpum 77
Erythea armata (Plate VIII.)-— 23
Erythrina crista-galli 120
Erythrina fusca 120
Erythrina indica (Plate L.) 119
Erythrina lithosperma 120
Erythrina subumbrans 120
Eucalyptus calophylla 168
Eucalyptus citriodora 168
Eucalyptus globulus 168
Eucalyptus robusta 168
Eugenia brasiliensis 168
Eugenia Jambolana 168
Eugenia Jambos 168
Eugenia malaccensis 168
Eugenia uniflora 168
Euphorbia antiquorum 131
Euphorbia cattimandoo 131
Euphorbia Family 127
Euphorbia heterophylla 131
Euphorbia pulcherrima 129
Euphorbia splendens 131
Euphorbia tirucalli 131
Euphorbia trigona 131
Euphoria longana 133
Fagraea sp 173
False wiliwili 91
Feathery Cocopalm 55
Ficus bengalensis 63
Ficus benjamina 65
Ficus carica 67
Ficus elastica 62
Ficus heterophylla 67
Ficus hispida 67
Ficus infectoria 67
Ficus parcelli 67
Ficus religiosa 65
Ficus Rumphii 67
Fish Poison Tree 117
Fish-tail Palm 37
Flacourtia Cataphracta 159
Flacourtia Family 159
Flacourtia Jangomas 159
Flacourtia sepiaria 159
Flame Tree 107
Flame Tree 151
Foreign wiliwili 119
Fountain Tree 193
Fraxinus floribunda 172
Gardenia florida 201
Galphimia glauca 125
Garcinia mangostana 157
Garcinia xanthochymus 157
Giant Milk-weed 175
Gliricidia sepium 77
Golden Dewdrop 187
Golden Shower 103
Grape Family 133
Graptophyllum liortense 199
Graptophvllum pictum 199
Graveyard Flower 175
Grevillea Banksii 67, 68
Grevillea robusta 67
Ground Rattan Palm 17
Guazima or Guasima 155
Guazuma ulmifolia 155
Guttapercha Family 172
Haematoxylum campechianum .... 107
Harpullia Hillii 133
Harpullia pendula 133
Hau Tree 136
Hawaiian Mahogany 122
Heliconia metallica 59
Heliotrope Family 183
Heliotropium peruvianum 183
Henna Family 160
Heritiera littoralis 153
Hernandia bivalvis 75
Hernandia peltata 73
Hevea brasiliensis 127
Hibiscus collinus 136
Hibiscus Family 135
Hibiscus mutabilis (Plate LV.) 139
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 137
Hibiscus sabdarifa 136
Hibiscus schizopetalus 137
Hibiscus tiliaceus 136
Hoop Pine 7
Horse Cassia 103
Horse-radish Tree 75
Howea Belmoreana H
Howea Forsteriana 11
Hova carnosa 175
Hura crepitans (Plate LIII.j 129
Hyophorbe amaricaulis +1
Hyphorbe Verschaffeltii 43
Hang Hang 70, 71
Indian Almond 165
Indian Coral Tree 119
Indian Laburnum 103
India Rubber Tree 62
Inocarpus edulis 117
lntsia bijuga 76
Ivorv-nut Palm 35
Ixora coccinea 201
Ixora macrothvrsa 201
Jacaranda mimosaefolia 191
Jacaranda ovalifolia 191
Jak fruit - 62
Jasminum multiflorum 173
Jatropha curcas 127
Jatropha multifida 127
Kamani, False 165
Kamani, Tree 157
Karaka Tree 132
Kassod Tree 99
Kauri Pine 4
Kiawe - 87
Kigelia africana (Plate
Kleinhofia hospita (Plate LXIV.) 155
Koa haole 76
Kou, foreign 183
Lactaria calocarpa 179
Lagerstroemia indica 163
Lagerstroemia speciosa 161
Lagunaria patersonii 139
Lantana camara 189
Latania commersonii 33
Latania glaucophylla 33
Latania Loddigesii (Plate XIII.) 33
Laurel Family 72
Lawsonia inermis 160
Leea aculeata 133
Leea manillensis 133
Leea sambucina 133
Leucaena glauca 76
Ligustrum ovalifolium 173
Linden Family 135
var. Roxburghii 173
Litchi chinensis 133
Litchi, Chinese 133
Livistona australis (Plate VII.)-- 23
Livistona chinensis (Plate VI.)-- 21
Livistona rotundifolia 21
Lochnera rosea 175
Logwood Tree 107
Looking-glass Tree 153
Macadamia ternifolia 67
Magnolia grandiflora 70
Mahogany, Tree 122
Malpighia glabra 125
Malvaviscus arboreus 136
Mangifera indica 132
Mango Family 132
Mangosteen Family 157
Manila Tamarind 79
Melaleuca leucadendron 168
Melia Azedarach 122
Metroxylon Sagus 3 39
Mexican creeper 59
Michelia champaca 70
Michelia fuscata 70
Milk-week Family 175
Mi 'o - 136
Mimosoideae 67, 77
Mimusops elengi 172
Mock Orange 120
Monkey bread 145
Monkey's dinner bell 129
Monstera deliciosa 57
Moreton Bay Chestnut 113
Moreton Bay Pine 7
Moringa oleifera (Plate XXX.) 75
Morus nigra 62
Mourning Cypress 4
Muehlenbeckia platyclada 69
Mulberry Family 62
Murraya exotica 120
Musa Cavendishii 57
Mussaenda erythrophylla 201
Myristica fragrans 71
Myrtle, common 168
Myrtle Family 167
Myrtus communis 168
Naked-Seeded Plants 1
Neem or Nim Tree 123
Nerium indicum 182
Nerium odorum 182
Nerium oleander 182
Night-blooming Cereus 160
Nim or Neem Tree 123
Norfolk Island Pine 6
Noronhia emarginata 172
Nothopanax cochleatum 169
Nothopanax fruticosum 169
Nothopanax Guilfoylei 168
Nothopanax ornatum 169
Nothopanax pinnatum 169
Nutmeg Family 71
Ochrosia acuminata 179
Ochosia calocar pa 179
Ochrosia elliptica (Plate LXXI.) 179
Oil Palm 51
Olea europea 172
Ulea paniculata 173
Olive Family 172
Orange Family 120
Orange — Trumpet Vine 191
Oreodoxa oleracea 45
Oreodoxa regia (Plate XIX.)-.. 43
Osmanthus fragrans 172
Otaheite Apple 132
Pahudia rhomboidea 77
Painted Leaf 131
Palma de escoba 17
Palmetto Palm 29
Palmyra Palm 33
Pandanus Rockii 10
Pandanus sylvestris 10
Pandanus tectorius 10
Pandanus Veitchii 10
Pangium edule 159
Papilionatae 76, 77
Para Rubber Tree 127
Parkia timoriana 77
Parkinsonia aculeata 76
Parmentiera cerifera 191
Peepul Tree 65
Peltoplwrum ferrugineum 113
Peltophorum inerme (Plate
Pepper Tree 132
Persea americana 72
Persian Lilac 122
Petraea volubilis 189
Phoenix canariensis 15
Phoenix dactylifera (Plate III.) 13
Phoenix farinifera 15
Phoenix humilis 15
Phoenix pusilla 15
Phoenix reclinata 15
Phoenix spinosa 15
Phyllanthus distichus 127
Phyllanthus emblica 127
Phyllanthus nivosus 127
var. roseopictUs 127
Pili Nut Tree 121
Pimenta officinalis 168
Pinanga Kuhlii 11
Pine Family 4
Pink and White Shower 105
Pink Shower 103
Piscidia ervthrina (Plate XLIX.) 117
Pithecolobium dulce (Plate
Pithecolobium saman 81
Platymiscium floribundum 77
Plumbago auriculata 171
Plumbago capensis 171
Plumiera acutifolia 175
Plumiera Family 175
Plumiera rubra "(Plate LXX.) — 177
Podocarpus neriifolia 4
Poinciana regia 107
Pomegranate Family 163
Pongamia mitis 115
Potato Family 189
Potato Vine 189
Pride of Barbados 109
Pride of India 122
Pritchardia pacifica (Plate IX.) 23
Prosopis dulcis 87
Prosopis glandulosa 87
Prosopis juliflora (Plate
Psidium cattleyanum 168
Psidium Guayava 167
Pterocarpus indicus 115
Pterocarpus santalinus 91
Pterospermum suberifolium 149
Punica granatum 163
Purging Cassia 103
Pyrostegia (Bignonia) venusta.. 191
Quinine Tree 201
Quisqualis indica 167
Rain Tree 81
Ravenala madagascariensis 59
Red Hibiscus, Chinese 137
Red Kalabuci 128
Red Kauri 5
Red Palm 41
Red Sandalwood 91
Red Wood 91
Rhapis cochinchinensis 17
Rhapis flabelliformis 17
Rhynchospermum jasminoides.... 175
Richmond River Pine 7
Roble Amarillo 192
Rondeletia odorata 199
Royal Palm 43
Royal Poinciana 107
Russelia juncea 197
Sabal Adansonii 29
Sabal Blackburniana 27
Sabal Palmetto (Plate XII.) 29
Sago Palm 1
Samanea saman (Plate
Sanchezia nobilis 197
Sandbox Tree 129
Sandpaper Vine 189
Santol Family 121
Sapindus saponaria 133
Sapium sebiferum 127
Sappan Wood Ill
Saraca declinata 77
Saraca indica (Plate XXXVII.) 91
Sausage Tree 195
Schinus molle 132
Schinus terebinthifolius 132
Schizolobium excelsum 77
Scindapsus aureus 57
Scrophulariaceae .... 197
Sea Grape 69
Seaforthia elegans 47
Semecarpus Anacardium 132
Sesbania grandiflora 114
var. coccinea 1 14
Sesbania sesban 114
Sikkim Palm 11
Silk Cotton Tree 143
Silky Oak 67
Siris Tree 83
Snow Bush 127
Soap-berry Family 133
Soap-berry Tree 133
Soft Kauri 5
Solandra grandiflora 189
Solanum Wendlandii 189
Sorrow-less Tree 91
Sour Gourd 145
itparattospernta lithotripticum .... 192
Spathodea campanulata ( Plate
Spondias dulcis 132
Spondias lutea 132
Spondias mangifera 132
Star Apple 172
Stephanotis floribunda 175
Sterculia foetida 151
Sterculia urens (Plates LX and)
St. John's Bread 91
Strelitzia regina 59
Strychnine Family 173
Strychnine Tree 173
Strychnos nux-vomica 173
St. Thomas Tree 99
Sugar Apple 70
Sugar Palm 39
Sumach, American 109
Swietenia Mahogani 122
Syncarpia glomulifera 168
Syncarpia laurifolia 168
Syngonium podophyllum 57
Tahitian Chestnut 117
Talipot Palm 19
Tamarind Tree 95
Tamarindus indica (Plate
Teak Tree 185
Tecomaria capensis 191
Tecoma stans 192
Tectona grandis (Plate
Temple Folwer 175
Terminalia arborea 167
Terminalia catappa (Plate
Terminalia Chebula 167
Terminalia Family 165
Terminalia sumatrana 167
Theobroma cacao 149
Fhespesia populnea 136
Thevetia Iccotli 182
Thevetia neriifolia (Plate
Thrinax argentea 17
Thrinax parviflora 19
Thrinax radiata 19
Thunbergia erecta 197
Thunbergia grandiflora 197
Tiger's Claw 119
Toona ciliata 121
Toona febrifuga 121
Tournefortia argentea 184
Trachelospermum divaricatum .... 175
Trachycarpus excelsa 13
(Plate XXXVIII.) 93
Traveller's Palm or Traveller's
Tree Tomato 189
Trincomali Wood 135
Tulip Tree 149
Tulip Tree 193
Umbrella Tree 165
Verbena Family 184
Vinca rosea 175
Vitex pubescens 185
Vitex sp 185
Vitex vestita 185
Washingtonia filifera ( Plate X.) 25
Washingtonia robusta (Plate
XI.) .25, 27
Washingtonia sonorae 25
Wattles, Australian 76
Wax Palm 13
Wax Plant 175
White Oak 139
White Kauri 5
Wi Apple 132
Wiliwili, False 91
Wine Palm 37
Yellow Oleander 181
Yellow Poinciana 113
Zizyphus jujuba 133
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